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He adds they are expecting to see prices continue to moderate and continue to watch inventory levels. The Inglis war the maist numerous group, but thare war an aa conseederable nummers o Erse an smawer nummers o ither ethnic groups, [85] [86] includin Italians , wha migratit tae South Wales.

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Roman rule in Wales wis a militar occupation, sauf for the soothren coastal region o sooth Wales , east o the Gower Peninsula , whaur thare is a legacy o Romanisation. Early historians, includin the 6t century cleric Gildas , hae notit as a signeeficant pynt in Welsh history, [19] as it is statit in leeteratur as the foondation pynt o several medieval ryal dynasties.

In that year the Roman general Magnus Maximus , or Macsen Wledig, strippit aw o wastren an northren Breetain o truips an senior admeenistrators, tae faw tae a sonsie bid for imperial pouer; conteenuin tae rule Breetain frae Gaul as emperor. Haein left wi the truips an Roman admeenistrators, an plannin tae conteena as the ruler o Breetain in the futur, his practical coorse wis tae transfer local authority tae local rulers.

The earliest Welsh genealogies gie Maximus the role o foondin faither for several ryal dynasties, includin thae o Powys an Gwent. The year period follaein the collapse o Roman rule is the maist difficult tae interpret in the history o Wales. Afore extensive studies o the distribution o R1b Y-DNA subclades , some previously mainteened that native Britons war displaced bi the invaders.

Frae onwart, a series o dynastic mairiages led tae Rhodri Mawr 's r. His sons in turn wad foond three principal dynasties Aberffraw for Gwynedd, Dinefwr for Deheubarth an Mathrafal for Powys. Rhodri's grandson Hywel Dda r. Maredudd's great-grandson throu his dauchter Princess Angharad Gruffydd ap Llywelyn r. Owain Gwynedd —70 o the Aberffraw line wis the first Welsh ruler tae uise the teetle princeps Wallensium prince o the Welsh , a teetle o substance gien his veectory on the Berwyn Moontains , accordin tae John Davies.

Owain Gwynedd's grandson Llywelyn Fawr the Great, — , wrestit concessions throu the Magna Carta in an receivin the fealty o ither Welsh lairds in at the cooncil at Aberdyfi , acame the first Prince o Wales. Wi Llywelyn's daith an his brither prince Dafydd 's execution, the few remeenin Welsh lairds did homage for thair launds tae Edward I. Tae help mainteen his dominance, Edward constructit a series o great stane castles: Beaumaris , Caernarfon an Conwy.

But the rebellion failed, an Owain went intae hidin in ; peace wis essentially restored in Wales bi Awtho the Statute o Rhuddlan in providit the constitutional basis for post-conquest government o the Principality o north Wales frae till , thare wis na formal Union till Prior tae the Breetish Industrial Revolution , that saw a rapid economic expansion atween an , thare war signs o smaw-scale industries scaitert ootthrou Wales.

The Penrhyn Quarry , appent in bi Richard Pennant , wis employin 15, men bi the late 19t century, [39] an alang wi Dinorwic Quarry , it dominatit the Welsh slate tred. As the sooth Wales coalfield wis exploitit, mainly in the upland valleys aroond Aberdare an later the Rhondda , the ports o Swansea, Cairdiff an later Penarth, growed intae warld exporters ofcoal an, wi them, cam a population buim.

Historian Kenneth Morgan descrived Wales on the even o the First Warld War as a "relatively placid, sel-confident an successfu naition". Ootput frae the coalfields continued tae increase, wi the Rhondda Valley recordin a peak o 9.

The first quarter o the 20t century an aa saw a shift in the poleetical laundscape o Wales. Syne , the Leeberal Pairty haed held a pairlamentar majority in Wales an, follaein the general election o , anerly ane non-Leeberal Member o Pairlament, Keir Hardie o Merthyr Tydfil , representit a Welsh constituency at Wastmeenster. Efter economic growthe in the first twa decades o the 20t century, Wales' staple industries endured a prolanged slump frae the early s tae the late s, leadin tae widespread unemployment an poverty in the sooth Wales valleys.

The Seicont Warld War — saw Welsh servicemen an weemen fecht in aw the major theatres o war, wi some 15, o them killed. The 20t century saw a revival in Welsh naitional feelin. Plaid Cymru wis formed in , seekin greater autonomy or unthirldom frae the rest o the UK. Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg The Welsh Leid Society wis formed in , in response tae lang-held fears that the leid micht suin dee oot. At a bi-election in , Gwynfor Evans wan the pairlamentar seat o Carmarthen , Plaid Cymru's first Pairlamentar seat.

In the first referendum , in , the Welsh electorate votit on the creaution o an assembly for Wales, but thare wis a lairge majority for the "na" vote. Wales is a kintra that is pairt o the Unitit Kinrick. Referendums held in Wales an Scotland in chuise tae establish a form o sel-govrenment in baith kintras. The twinty auries o responsibeelity devolved tae the Welsh Govrenment, kent as "subjects", include agricultur, economic development, eddication, heal, hoosin, local govrenment, social services, tourism, transport an the Welsh leid.

Thir "principal auries" [61] are responsible for the provision o aw local govrenment services, includin eddication, social wark, environment an roads services. Wales is a generally moontainous kintra on the wastren side o central soothren Great Breetain. Muckle o Wales' diverse laundscape is moontainous, pairticularly in the north an central regions. The moontains war shapit during the last ice age, the Devensian glaciation. The Seiven Wunners o Wales is a leet in doggerel verse o seiven geographic an cultural laundmerks in Wales probably componed in the late 18t century unner the influence o tourism frae Ingland.

Snowdon the heichest moontain , the Gresford bells the peal o bells in the medieval kirk o All Saints at Gresford , the Llangollen brig biggit in ower the River Dee , St Winefride's Well a pilgrimage steid at Holywell in Flintshire , the Wrexham Wrecsam steeple 16t-century touer o St Giles' Church, Wrexham , the Overton yew trees auncient yew trees in the kirkyaird o St.

Wales lies within the north temperate zone. It haes a cheengeable, maritime climate an is ane o the weetest kintras in Europe. Rainfaw patterns shaw signeeficant variation. Ower the last years, Wales haes been transformed first frae a predominantly agricultural kintra tae an industrial, an nou a post-industrial economy. Accordin tae Professor Phil Williams , the Great Depression "devastatit Wales", north an sooth, acause o its "owerwhelmin dependence on coal an steel".

Acause o puir-quality sile, muckle o Wales is unsuitable for crap-growin an fermstockin fermin haes tradeetionally been the focus o agricultur.

The Welsh laundscape pertectit bi three naitional parks an 45 Blue Flag saunds , as well as the unique cultur o Wales, attract lairge nummers o tourists, wha play an especially vital role in the economy o rural auries.

A History of Wales. The population o Wales doobled frae , in tae 1,, in an haed reached 2,, bi Maist o the increase cam in the coal minin destricts, especially Glamorganshire , which grew frae 71, in tae , in an 1,, in Houever, thare wis an aa lairge-scale migration intae Wales in the Industrial Revolution. The Inglis war the maist numerous group, but thare war an aa conseederable nummers o Erse an smawer nummers o ither ethnic groups, [85] [86] includin Italians , wha migratit tae South Wales.

Mony o thir sel-identify as Welsh. The census shawed Wales' population tae be 3,,, the heichest in its history. The tot fertility rate TFR in Wales wis 1. Baith Inglis an Welsh are conseedert offeecial leids o Wales, [95] wi Welsh forder recognised in law as haein "offeecial status".

The lairgest releegion in Wales is Christianity, wi Wales can claim ane o the auldest unbreuken leeterar tradeetions in Europe. Mony warks o Celtic airt hae been foond in Wales. Wales is eften referred tae as "the laund o sang", [] an is notable for its hairpists, male choirs, an solo airtists.

Tradeetional instruments o Wales include telyn deires triple hairp , fiddle, crwth , pibgorn hornpipe an ither instruments. It wis offeecially recognised as the Welsh naitional banner in The daffodil an the leek are an aa seembols o Wales.

The Prince o Wales' heraldic badge is an aa whiles uised tae seembolise Wales. The badge, kent as the Prince o Wales's feathers , conseests o three white feathers emerging frae a gowd coronet. Laund o My Faithers is the Naitional Anthem o Wales, an is played at events sic as fitbaa or rugby matches involvin the Wales naitional team as weel as the openin o the Welsh Assembly an ither offeecial occasions.

Sovereign state Legal jurisdiction. Naitional Assembly UK Pairlament. The meaning behind the Welsh motto". Retrieved 22 March Retrieved 26 July Retrieved 10 October Longmans, Green, and Co. Retrieved 28 September Retrieved 30 December Retrieved 17 November Retrieved 24 October BBC Cymru Wales website. An Atlas of Roman Britain. Blackwell Publishers published A History of Roman Britain 3rd, revised ed. The Works of Gildas and Nennius. Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion.

University of Wales Press , Third Edition,