Environmental impact assessment

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) recently released a new report on drilling productivity that provides estimated changes in oil and gas production for six key oil and natural gas fields depicted below.

The fact that the rig current is more than what is needed to sustain production is indicative of the large increases in domestic oil and natural gas production that the nation is seeing. In , 37 percent of the wells produced both oil and natural gas; in , 56 percent produced both oil and natural gas.

EIA's Drilling Productivity Report

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) recently released a new report on drilling productivity that provides estimated changes in oil and gas production for six key oil and natural gas fields depicted below.

Some of the support provided by lower prices will be offset by weaker economic growth globally, and particularly in some emerging economies.

The serious build-up of stocks arising from logistical bottlenecks in Alberta led the provincial government to act very decisively to curb output. Time will tell how effective the new production agreement will be in re-balancing the oil market. The next meeting of the Vienna Agreement countries takes place in April, and we hope that the intervening period is less volatile than has recently been the case. Refinery Margins Methodology Notes. OMR Tables in Russian. Oil Market Report in Russian.

Table 1 of Oil Market Report. The group agreed to cut output by 0. Lower crude prices helped margins, although the gasoline-focused US Gulf Coast lagged behind. EIA receives the data from the commercial source Drillinginfo , which collects the data from the various state agencies. Some state agencies do not make well-production data available until years after production occurs, and others have never made well-production data available. For the late-reporting states—Kentucky, Maryland, and Tennessee—the last year of reported data is used to populate recent missing years to achieve the most complete U.

Data are not available for Illinois and Indiana. Summary Prices of petroleum. Find by Alphabetical Recurring Tag Cloud. It is enforced by the Central Environmental Authority.

The new law of Ukraine on evaluation of impact on surroundings prescribes the requirements of environmental safety, rational use of national resources, minimizing of harmful impact on surroundings in the process of making managerial decisions about planned activity. The designing of the conclusion of evaluation of impact is a result of its conducting. The key moment of the law on evaluation of impact on surroundings is a substitution of conclusion of state environmental experise on the conclusion of evaluation of impact on surroundings.

Business entity is forbidden to conduct or to start its planned activity without the conclusion of impact on surroundings.

Federal or federalized actions expected to subject or be subject to significant environmental impacts will publish a Notice of Intent to Prepare an EIS as soon as significance is known. Certain actions of federal agencies must be preceded by the NEPA process. NEPA requires that plausible statements as to the prospective impacts be disclosed in advance. The purpose of NEPA process is to ensure that the decision maker is fully informed of the environmental aspects and consequences prior to making the final decision.

An environmental assessment EA is an environmental analysis prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act to determine whether a federal action would significantly affect the environment and thus require a more detailed Environmental Impact Statement EIS. This is because the EA was originally intended to be a simple document used in relatively rare instances where an agency was not sure if the potential significance of an action would be sufficient to trigger preparation of an EIS.

But today, because EISs are so much longer and complicated to prepare, federal agencies are going to great effort to avoid preparing EISs by using EAs, even in cases where the use of EAs may be inappropriate. Likewise, even the preparation of an accurate EA is viewed today as an onerous burden by many entities responsible for the environmental review of a proposal. Federal agencies have responded by streamlining their regulations that implement NEPA environmental review, by defining categories of projects that by their well understood nature may be safely excluded from review under NEPA, and by drawing up lists of project types that have negligible material impact upon the environment and can thus be exempted.

The Environmental Assessment is a concise public document prepared by the federal action agency that serves to:. The Environmental Assessment includes a brief discussion of the purpose and need of the proposal and of its alternatives as required by NEPA 2 E , and of the human environmental impacts resulting from and occurring to the proposed actions and alternatives considered practicable, plus a listing of studies conducted and agencies and stakeholders consulted to reach these conclusions.

The action agency must approve an EA before it is made available to the public. The EA is made public through notices of availability by local, state, or regional clearing houses, often triggered by the purchase of a public notice advertisement in a newspaper of general circulation in the proposed activity area.

The EA becomes a draft public document when notice of it is published, usually in a newspaper of general circulation in the area affected by the proposal. There is a day review period required for an Environmental Assessment 30 days if exceptional circumstances while the document is made available for public commentary, and a similar time for any objection to improper process.

Commenting on the Draft EA is typically done in writing or email, submitted to the lead action agency as published in the notice of availability.

An EA does not require a public hearing for verbal comments. The preparation of an EIS then generates a similar but more lengthy, involved and expensive process. The adequacy of an environmental impact statement EIS can be challenged in federal court.

Major proposed projects have been blocked because of an agency's failure to prepare an acceptable EIS. One prominent example was the Westway landfill and highway development in and along the Hudson River in New York City. Route 95 through Las Vegas. The case was settled prior to the court's final decision. Some of those state laws such as the California Environmental Quality Act refer to the required environmental impact study as an environmental impact report. This variety of state requirements produces voluminous data not just upon impacts of individual projects, but also in insufficiently researched scientific domains.

For example, in a seemingly routine Environmental Impact Report for the city of Monterey, California , information came to light that led to the official federal endangered species listing of Hickman's potentilla , a rare coastal wildflower. Environmental threats do not respect national borders. International pollution can have detrimental effects on the atmosphere, oceans, rivers, aquifers , farmland, the weather and biodiversity.

Global climate change is transnational. Specific pollution threats include acid rain , radioactive contamination , debris in outer space , stratospheric ozone depletion and toxic oil spills. The Chernobyl disaster , precipitated by a nuclear accident on April 26, , is a stark reminder of the devastating effects of transboundary nuclear pollution. Environmental protection is inherently a cross-border issue and has led to the creation of transnational regulation via multilateral and bilateral treaties.

However, as there is no universal legislature or administration with a comprehensive mandate, most international treaties exist parallel to one another and are further developed without the benefit of consideration being given to potential conflicts with other agreements. There is also the issue of international enforcement. An example is the failure of many international fisheries regimes to restrict harvesting practises.

As per Jay et al. There is growing dissent about them as their influence on decisions is limited. Improved training for practitioners, guidance on bestpractice and continuing research have all been proposed. EIAs have been criticized for excessively limiting their scope in space and time. No accepted procedure exists for determining such boundaries. This boundary is determined by the applicant and the lead assessor, but in practice, almost all EIAs address only direct and immediate on-site effects.

Development causes both direct and indirect effects. Consumption of goods and services, production, use and disposal of building materials and machinery, additional land use for activities of manufacturing and services, mining and refining, etc. The indirect effects of development can be much higher than the direct effects examined by an EIA. Proposals such as airports or shipyards cause wide-ranging national and international effects, which should be covered in EIAs.

Broadening the scope of EIA can benefit the conservation of threatened species. Instead of concentrating on the project site, some EIAs employed a habitat -based approach that focused on much broader relationships among humans and the environment. As a result, alternatives that reduce the negative effects to the population of whole species, rather than local subpopulations, can be assessed.

Thissen and Agusdinata [76] have argued that little attention is given to the systematic identification and assessment of uncertainties in environmental studies which is critical in situations where uncertainty cannot be easily reduced by doing more research.

In line with this, Maier et al. In such a way decisions can be made with confidence or known uncertainty. These proposals are justified on data that shows that environmental assessments fail to predict accurately the impacts observed.

The gathered evidence consisted of comparisons between predictions in EIAs and the impacts measured during, or following project implementation. In explaining this trend, Tenney et al. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Environmental impact assessment guidelines. Part of a series on Law and the Environment Environmental Law Pollution control law Environmental impact assessment Air quality law Water quality law Waste management law Environmental cleanup law Natural resources law Species protection Water resources law Mining law Forestry law Fisheries law Game law Reference materials Environmental journals International environmental agreements Environmental laws by country Environmental lawsuits Environmental ministries Supranational environmental agencies Related topics Administrative law Bankruptcy law Earth jurisprudence Energy law Environmental crime poaching Environmental justice Insurance law International law Land law Land use Law of the sea Property law Public trust doctrine Wild law v t e.

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A Guide to Best Professional Practices. International Association for Impact Assessment. Archived from the original PDF on A new approach based on Fuzzy logic Environmental Impact Assessment review Environmental Rights in Canada.