The first hospital built in Egypt, in Cairo's Southwestern quarter, was the first documented facility to care for mental illnesses. They are close to animals by their habits, deeds and behavior. Nepheles' children escaped on the yellow ram over the sea, but Helle fell off and drowned in the strait now named after her, the Hellespont.
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Austrian food is influenced by Hungaria, German and Italian food traditions. The main dishes contain either meats, such as pork, beef and veal. The Wiener Schnitzel 'Vienna Schnitzel' is a tenderised flattened piece of veal meat coated in flour, egg and breadcrumbs and deep fried.
In Austria they are so big, the cover your plate! Popularly eaten are also potatoes, either sliced and fried as 'Pommes Frites' or 'Bratkartoffeln', pan fried potatoes. Potato and floury dumplings are served in either savoury or sweet dishes.
Bread and bread rolls made of white and wholemeal flour as well as muesli is eaten at breakfast. Austrians are famous for their sweet dessert and cakes such as the 'Sachertorte', which is a chocolate cake or 'Strudel' which is a thin pastry roll filled with apples or cottage cheese.
Christmas Traditions are different around the world. Children tell us about some fascinating traditions and how they celebrate Christmas in their families. And here they are! In our selection of 10 wonderful Christmas Poems for Kids you will find many family's favorite poems. Which one is your favourite? Simply use the html code below.
Hundertwasser Haus - Alps - Vienna. Saalbach is a popular with tourists. Gustav Klimt 'The Kiss' and Hundertwasser house. Austrian Apfelstrudel - Applestrudel is traditionally served with ice-cream, whipped cream or vanilla sauce. More about other European Countries Germany. Pharmacies were periodically inspected by government inspectors called muhtasib , who checked to see that the medicines were mixed properly, not diluted and kept in clean jars.
Violators were fined or beaten. The theory of Humorism was largely dominant during this time. Arab physician Ibn Zuhr provided proof that scabies is caused by the itch mite and that it can be cured by removing the parasite without the need for purging, bleeding or other treatments called for by humorism, making a break with the humorism of Galen and Ibn Sina. On hygienic practices, Rhazes, who was once asked to choose the site for a new hospital in Baghdad, suspended pieces of meat at various points around the city, and recommended building the hospital at the location where the meat putrefied most slowly.
Sometimes, past scholars were criticized, like Rhazes who criticized and refuted Galen's revered theories, most notably, the Theory of Humors and was thus accused of ignorance.
During the 15th and 16th centuries alone, The Canon of Medicine was published more than thirty-five times. It was used as a standard medical textbook through the 18th century in Europe. Al-Zahrawi was a tenth century Arab physician. He is sometimes referred to as the "Father of surgery". Apart from the Nile , Tigris , and Euphrates , navigable rivers were uncommon in the Middle East, so transport by sea was very important.
Navigational sciences were highly developed, making use of a rudimentary sextant known as a kamal. When combined with detailed maps of the period, sailors were able to sail across oceans rather than skirt along the coast. Muslim sailors were also responsible for reintroducing large, three-masted merchant vessels to the Mediterranean. Many Muslims went to China to trade, and these Muslims began to have a great economic influence on the country. The 13th century Persian poet Rumi wrote some of the finest Persian poetry and is still one of the best selling poets in America.
Manuscript illumination was an important art, and Persian miniature painting flourished in the Persianate world. Calligraphy , an essential aspect of written Arabic , developed in manuscripts and architectural decoration.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan in Tunisia , the ancestor of all the mosques in the western Islamic world excluding Turkey and the Balkans,  is one of the best preserved and most significant examples of early great mosques. Founded in , it dates in its present form largely from the 9th century. The Great Mosque of Samarra in Iraq was completed in It combined the hypostyle architecture of rows of columns supporting a flat base, above which a huge spiralling minaret was constructed.
The beginning of construction of the Great Mosque at Cordoba in marked the beginning of Islamic architecture in Spain and Northern Africa. The mosque is noted for its striking interior arches. The walls are decorated with stylized foliage motifs, Arabic inscriptions, and arabesque design work, with walls covered in geometrically patterned glazed tiles.
Many traces of Fatimid architecture exist in Cairo today, the most defining examples include the Al Azhar University and the Al Hakim mosque.
In , Genghis Khan established a powerful dynasty among the Mongols of central Asia. During the 13th century, this Mongol Empire conquered most of the Eurasian land mass, including China in the east and much of the old Islamic caliphate as well as Kievan Rus' in the west. The Ottoman conquest of the Arabic-speaking Middle East in placed the traditional heart of the Islamic world under Ottoman Turkish control.
The rational sciences continued to flourish in the Middle East during the Ottoman period. To account for the decline of Islamic science, it has been argued that the Sunni Revival in the 11th and 12th centuries produced a series of institutional changes that decreased the relative payoff to producing scientific works. With the spread of madrasas and the greater influence of religious leaders, it became more lucrative to produce religious knowledge.
This is easily refutable, as the scholars of the golden age were experts in both religious and secular fields, with many of the Islamic schools of thoughts having been established during the golden age itself. Al-Hassan extended the golden age up to the 16th century, noting that scientific activity continued to flourish up until then. Economic historian Joel Mokyr has argued that Islamic philosopher al-Ghazali — "was a key figure in the decline in Islamic science", as his works contributed to rising mysticism and occasionalism in the Islamic world.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A period in Islamic history between the 8th and 14th centuries. Expansion under Muhammad , — Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate , — Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate , — Islamic attitudes towards science. Greek contributions to Islamic world , Indian influence on Islamic science , Christian influences in Islam , and Chinese influences on Islamic pottery. Mathematics in medieval Islam. Science in the medieval Islamic world.
Astronomy in medieval Islam. Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam. Geography and cartography in medieval Islam. Medicine in the medieval Islamic world. List of inventions in the medieval Islamic world. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Islamic literature and Islamic poetry. Boulakia "The founding father of Eastern Sociology". The Western world recognizes Khaldun as the father of sociology but hesitates in recognizing him as a great economist who laid its very foundations.
He was the first to systematically analyze the functioning of an economy, the importance of technology, specialization and foreign trade in economic surplus and the role of government and its stabilization policies to increase output and employment.
Moreover, he dealt with the problem of optimum taxation, minimum government services, incentives, institutional framework, law and order, expectations, production, and the theory of value". In Sharifah Shifa Al-Attas. Archived from the original on 2 April Retrieved 26 August The true Caliphate ended with the fall of Bagdad". New Outlook , Volume 45, , p. Gilman points out, ended with Omar, the second of the Kalifs. George, The Golden Age of Islam , Understanding the Basis of Their Conflict , , p.
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