They possess conscience and reason. In she visited her critically ill mother in Bangladesh but was forced to go into hiding once again after threats and demonstrations. Attacks on secularists in Bangladesh crimes in Bangladesh crimes in Bangladesh crimes in Bangladesh crimes in Bangladesh Human rights in Bangladesh Internal conflict in Bangladesh Irreligion by country Religion in Bangladesh Murder in Murder in Murder in Murder in Islamic terrorism in Bangladesh.
"Bengali" translation into Spanish
Among some extremists, this violence is motivated by inceldom. While police have arrested a number of suspects in the killings, and some bloggers have received police protection, the Bangladesh government has also responded by arresting and jailing a number of secularist bloggers for "defaming Islam" and by shutting down several websites. A number of non-governmental organisations NGOs , including Human Rights Watch , Amnesty International , Reporters without Borders , PEN International , PEN Canada and the Committee to Protect Journalists have criticized the government for failing to protect its citizens and for not condemning the attacks,  and have condemned the imprisonment of bloggers as an attack on free speech, which they say is contributing to a climate of fear for Bangladeshi journalists.
In a petition published in The Guardian on 22 May , authors, including Salman Rushdie , Margaret Atwood , and Yann Martell , called on the government of Bangladesh to put an end to the deadly attacks on bloggers, urging the Prime Minister and government "to do all in their power to ensure that the tragic events of the last three months are not repeated, and to bring the perpetrators to justice.
On 7 June Bangladeshi Home Minister Asaduzzaman Khan alleged that the main opposition party BNP has links to the attacks, and that these attacks are part of a wider conspiracy that also involved Mossad , the national intelligence agency of Israel. On 14 June approximately , Bangladeshi Muslim clerics released a fatwa , ruling that the murder of "non-Muslims, minorities and secular activists…forbidden in Islam". On 15 January Asif Mohiuddin , a self-described "militant atheist" blogger,  was stabbed near his office in Motijheel , Dhaka.
He survived the attack. According to Mohiuddin, he later met his attackers in jail, and they told him, "You left Islam, you are not a Muslim, you criticized the Koran, we had to do this. On the night of 15 February , Ahmed Rajib Haider , an atheist blogger, was attacked while leaving his house in the Area Palashnagar of Mirpur neighborhood of Dhaka. His body was found lying in a pool of blood,  mutilated to the point that his friends could not recognise him.
Haider was an organizer of the Shahbag movement,  a group "which seeks death for war criminals and a ban on Jamaat-e-Islami and its student front Islami Chhatra Shibir. On the night of 7 March Sunnyur Rahaman was injured when two men swooped in on him and hacked him with machetes. He came under attack around 9: With the assistance of local police, he was rushed to Dhaka Medical College and Hospital with wounds to his head, neck, right leg, and left hand.
On 15 November a teacher in the Rajshahi University sociology department named Shafiul Islam, a follower of the Baul community , was struck with sharp weapons by several youths on his way home in Rajshahi city. A fundamentalist Islamist militant group named ' Ansar al Islam Bangladesh-2 ' claimed responsibility for the attack.
On a social media website, the group declared: He barred female students from wearing burka in classes. This led to many students abandoning burka against their will.
According to one of Shafiul Islam's colleagues, the victim was not anti-Islam but had prohibited female students from wearing full-face veils in his classes as he believed they could be used to cheat in exams. On 26 February bio-engineer Dr. Avijit Roy , a well-known Bangladeshi blogger, and his wife Bonya Ahmed were attacked in Dhaka by machete-wielding assailants.
According to witnesses, two assailants stopped and dragged them from the rickshaw to the pavement before striking them with machetes. His wife was slashed on her shoulders and the fingers of her left hand severed when she attempted to go to her husband's aid. His wife survived the attack.
Roy was a naturalized U. A champion of liberal secularism and humanism , Roy was an outspoken atheist and opponent of religious extremism. He was the author of ten books, the best known of which was a critique of religious extremism, Virus of Faith.
Roy's killing sparked protests in Dhaka and brought forth expressions of concern internationally. Rahman were the victims of murderous thugs, but they were also the victims of a poisonous political climate, in which secularists and Islamists, observant Muslims and atheists, Jamaat-e-Islami and the Awami League are pitted against one another.
They battle for votes, for power, for the ideological upper hand. There seems to be no common ground. Mahfuz Anam , editor of The Daily Star , wrote that the death "is a spine-chilling warning to us all that we all can be targets. All that needs to happen for any of us to be killed is that some fanatic somewhere in the country, decides that someone or anyone, needs to be killed.
What is being destroyed is an integral part of the values of our freedom struggle and the democratic struggle that we have waged so far. On 30 March another blogger, Washiqur Rahman, was killed in the Tejgaon neighborhood of Dhaka in an attack similar to that perpetrated on Avijit Roy.
The police arrested two suspects near the scene and recovered meat cleavers from them. The suspects said they killed Raman because of his anti-Islamic articles. Raman was reportedly known for criticizing "irrational religious beliefs".
Imran Sarker told reporters that, unlike Roy, Raman was not a high-profile blogger, but "was targeted because open-minded and progressive bloggers are being targeted in general. They are killing those who are easy to access, when they get the opportunity The main attempt is to create fear among bloggers. That is why [the bloggers] have become the main target, and the political parties who are supposed to prevent such attacks and provide security to them seem unable to do so.
The main problem is that even mainstream political parties prefer to compromise with these radical groups to remain in power". The Committee to Protect Journalists issued a press release stating that Raman's death occurred in a climate of "official harassment of journalists in Bangladesh". Ananta Bijoy Das, an atheist blogger  who was on an extremist hit-list for his writing, was hacked to death by four masked men in Sylhet on 12 May He had authored three books on science, evolution, and revolution in the Soviet Union, and headed the Sylhet-based science and rationalist council.
Ananta Das was invited by the Swedish PEN to discuss the persecution of writers in Bangladesh, but the Swedish government refused him a visa on the grounds that he might not return to Bangladesh after his visit. Lawyer Sara Hossain said of Roy and Das, "They've always believed and written very vocally in support of free expression and they've very explicitly written about not following any religion themselves. An editorial in The Guardian stated: Those are virtues that fundamentalists and fanatics cannot stand.
The public murder of awkward intellectuals is one definition of barbarism. Governments of the west, and that of Bangladesh, must do much more to defend freedom and to protect lives. Niloy Chatterjee,  also known as Niloy Chakroborty  and by his pen name Niloy Neel, was killed on 7 August It is reported that a gang of about six men armed with machetes attacked him at his home in the Goran neighborhood of Dhaka and hacked him to death.
His best friend Sahedul Sahed said ,Neel had previously reported to the police that he feared for his life, but no action had been taken. The UN urged a quick and fair investigation of the murder saying, "It is vital to ensure the identification of those responsible for this and the previous horrendous crimes, as well as those who may have masterminded the attacks.
Writer Taslima Nasrin criticized the prime minister, Sheikh Hasina, and her government saying, "Sheikh Hasina's government is morally culpable. I am squarely blaming the state for these massacres in installment. Its indifference and so-called inability to rein in the murderous Ansarullah brigade is solely predicated on the fear of being labelled atheists. Reports stated that he had been killed in his third-floor office at the Jagriti Prokashoni publishing house. The attack followed another stabbing, earlier the same day, in which publisher Ahmedur Rashid Chowdhury and two writers, Ranadeep Basu and Tareque Rahim, were stabbed in their office at another publishing house.
The three men were taken to hospital, and at least one was reported to be in critical condition. Ahmedur Rashid Chowdhury Tutul, aged 43, editor and publisher of Shuddhashar In February , he received a death threat, for publishing books of atheist writers and his secular view. On 31 October , he was attacked by assailants with machetes. He was hospitalized in a critical condition.
Shahjahan Bachchu an acting editor of weekly Amader Bikrampur and former general secretary of Munshiganj chapter of Communist Party of Bangladesh shot dead on 11 June After an initial wave of attacks focused solely on secularists, most of them atheists, the targets broadened to include other activists, members of religious minority groups, and representatives of Bengali or western culture.
Some of these attacks are reported to have been regretted by the murderers associated with one of the perpetrating groups, Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Bangladesh. They admitted that they had bungled their research, choosing victims who had not offended Islam but were simply popular figures in the community. Hoshi was shot three times in a remote rural region of Rangpur, where he had invested in a grass cultivation project and had leased land for Tk82, According to police sources, Hoshi was not a wealthy man and had come to Bangladesh to improve his condition, adding that the relatively low cost of living in Bangladesh and its rich soil drove him to try his luck in Bangladesh.
He was ultimately buried in Bangladesh. On 21 February the so-called Islamic State group has said it was behind the beheading of Jogeshwar Roy, a senior Hindu priest, and the wounding of two worshippers in the Panchagarh district of northern Bangladesh.
On 23 April A. Rezaul Karim Siddique , a professor of English at the University of Rajshahi , was hacked to death by several unidentified assailants while waiting for a bus to the university campus in Rajshahi city.
Two days after Siddique's murder 25 April , gay-rights activists Xulhaz Mannan and Mahbub Rabbi Tonoy were hacked to death by assailants who broke into Mannan's apartment in the Kalabagan neighborhood of Dhaka.
Tonoy was a prominent theater activist and co-organizer of the Rainbow Rally ISIL claimed responsibility for the attack. On 30 April Nikhil Joarder, a Hindu tailor, was hacked to death by two assailants in Tangail in central Bangladesh, by several men on a motorcycle. Responsibililty for the crime was quickly claimed by the organization Islamic State through the news agency of the terrorist group.
On 7 May suspected Islamic militants hacked to death a year-old minority Sufi Muslim man, Mohammad Shahidullah, at a mango grove in Mymensingh. Maung Shue U Chak, a year-old Buddhist monk, was hacked to death in the Bandarban district of southeastern Bangladesh on 14 May The Islamic State is suspected to be behind the killing. Machete-wielding assailants hacked a village doctor to death and wounded a university teacher in the Kushtia district of Bangladesh on 20 May The homeopathic doctor, Mir Sanaur Rahman, 55, was killed on the spot, and his companion, identified as Saifuzzaman, 45, suffered serious wounds.
Police found a bloody machete at the scene. On 25 May Debesh Chandra Pramanik, a year-old Hindu businessman, was attacked and killed in his shoe shop at Gaibandha in Dhaka district. ISIL claimed responsibility for the attack, their second in Bangladesh in less than a week.
On 7 June , Ananda Gopal Ganguly, a year-old Hindu priest, had his throat slit by suspected Islamists in the Jhenaidaha district of the Khulna division, soon after three suspected Islamists were killed by police. He was said to have been hacked and shot at, with a cut to the throat being the death blow. Three men attacked him while he was riding on his motorcycle. On 10 June Nityaranjan Pande, a year-old worker at a Hindu monastery in Pabna, was hacked to death by several people near the monastery.
Islamist militants have been suspected in his death. On 15 June Ripon Chakraborty, a Hindu college teacher in the Madaripur district was attacked with machete knives at his home by three people. He survived the attack, but was seriously injured. On 1 July Shyamananda Das, a Hindu temple worker, was hacked to death by three suspected Islamic militants on motorcycles in the Satkhira district.
On 2 July Mong Shwe Lung Marma, a Buddhist farmer and the vice president of ward seven of the Awami league , was hacked to death and assassinated in Bandarban. Bengali literature , with its millennium-old history and folk heritage , has extensively developed since the Bengali renaissance and is one of the most prominent and diverse literary traditions in Asia. The first two verses of a patriotic song written in Bengali by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee , Vande Mataram , was adopted as the "national song" of India in both the colonial period and later in in independent India.
Furthermore, it is believed by many that the national anthem of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Matha was inspired by a Bengali poem written by Rabindranath Tagore ,     while some even believe the anthem was originally written in Bengali and then translated into Sinhalese.
Language is an important element of Bengali identity and binds together a culturally diverse region. Sanskrit was spoken in Bengal since the first millennium BCE. During the Gupta Empire , Bengal was a hub of Sanskrit literature.
These dialects were called Magadhi Prakrit. They eventually evolved into Ardha Magadhi. Some argue that the points of divergence occurred much earlier — going back to even ,  but the language was not static: For example, Ardhamagadhi is believed to have evolved into Abahatta around the 6th century, which competed with the ancestor of Bengali for some time. Bengali was an official court language of the Sultanate of Bengal. Muslim rulers promoted the literary development of Bengali.
The modern literary form of Bengali was developed during the 19th and early 20th centuries based on the dialect spoken in the Nadia region , a west-central Bengali dialect. Bengali presents a strong case of diglossia , with the literary and standard form differing greatly from the colloquial speech of the regions that identify with the language. In the Government of Pakistan tried to impose Urdu as the sole state language in Pakistan, starting the Bengali language movement.
On the day of 21 February five students and political activists were killed during protests near the campus of the University of Dhaka. In Bengali was made a state language of Pakistan. This gives Bengali the distinction of being the only language in the world that is known for its language movements and people sacrificing their lives for its preservation.
A Bengali language movement in the Indian state of Assam took place in , a protest against the decision of the Government of Assam to make Assamese the only official language of the state even though a significant proportion of the population were Bengali-speaking, particularly in the Barak Valley. In , the parliament of Bangladesh and the legislative assembly of West Bengal proposed that Bengali be made an official UN language.
Approximate distribution of native Bengali speakers assuming a rounded total of million worldwide. Bengali language is native to the region of Bengal , which comprises Indian states of West Bengal and the present-day nation of Bangladesh. Besides the native region it is also spoken by the Bengalis living in Tripura , southern Assam and the Bengali population in the Indian union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Bengali is also spoken in the neighboring states of Odisha , Bihar , and Jharkhand , and sizable minorities of Bengali speakers reside in Indian cities outside Bengal, including Delhi , Mumbai , Varanasi , and Vrindavan.
Bengali is national and official language of Bangladesh , and one of the 23 official languages in India. It is also a recognized secondary language in the City of Karachi in Pakistan. Regional variation in spoken Bengali constitutes a dialect continuum. Linguist Suniti Kumar Chattopadhyay grouped these dialects into four large clusters — Rarh , Banga , Kamarupa and Varendra ;  but many alternative grouping schemes have also been proposed.
In the dialects prevalent in much of eastern and south-eastern Bangladesh Barisal , Chittagong , Dhaka and Sylhet Divisions of Bangladesh , many of the stops and affricates heard in West Bengal are pronounced as fricatives. The influence of Tibeto-Burman languages on the phonology of Eastern Bengali is seen through the lack of nasalized vowels and an alveolar articulation of what are categorised as the "cerebral" consonants as opposed to the postalveolar articulation of West Bengal. Some variants of Bengali, particularly Chittagonian and Chakma , have contrastive tone ; differences in the pitch of the speaker's voice can distinguish words.
Rangpuri , Kharia Thar and Mal Paharia are closely related to Western Bengali dialects, but are typically classified as separate languages. Similarly, Hajong is considered a separate language, although it shares similarities to Northern Bengali dialects. During the standardization of Bengali in the 19th century and early 20th century, the cultural center of Bengal was in the city of Kolkata , founded by the British.
What is accepted as the standard form today in both West Bengal and Bangladesh is based on the West-Central dialect of Nadia District , located next to the border of Bangladesh. Bengali exhibits diglossia , though some scholars have proposed triglossia or even n-glossia or heteroglossia between the written and spoken forms of the language. Linguist Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar , categorizes the language as:. Other dialects, with minor variations from Standard Colloquial, are used in other parts of West Bengal and western Bangladesh, such as the Midnapore dialect, characterised by some unique words and constructions.
However, a majority in Bangladesh speak in dialects notably different from SCB. Some dialects, particularly those of the Chittagong region, bear only a superficial resemblance to SCB.
Even in SCB, the vocabulary may differ according to the speaker's religion: Hindus are more likely to use words derived from Sanskrit whereas Muslims are more likely to use words of Persian and Arabic origin, along with more native words respectively. The phonemic inventory of standard Bengali consists of 29 consonants and 7 vowels, as well as 7 nasalized vowels. The inventory is set out below in the International Phonetic Alphabet upper grapheme in each box and romanization lower grapheme.
Bengali is known for its wide variety of diphthongs , combinations of vowels occurring within the same syllable. The total number of diphthongs is not established, with bounds at 17 and An incomplete chart is given by Sarkar of the following: In standard Bengali, stress is predominantly initial. Native Bengali words do not allow initial consonant clusters ;  the maximum syllabic structure is CVC i. The Bengali alphabet is believed to have evolved from a modified Brahmic script around CE or 10th—11th century.
The Bengali script is a cursive script with eleven graphemes or signs denoting nine vowels and two diphthongs , and thirty-nine graphemes representing consonants and other modifiers. The letters run from left to right and spaces are used to separate orthographic words.
Since the Bengali script is an abugida, its consonant graphemes usually do not represent phonetic segments , but carry an "inherent" vowel and thus are syllabic in nature. This diacritic, however, is not common, and is chiefly employed as a guide to pronunciation. The abugida nature of Bengali consonant graphemes is not consistent, however. The vowel graphemes in Bengali can take two forms: To represent a vowel in isolation from any preceding or following consonant, the independent form of the vowel is used.
A vowel at the beginning of a word is always realized using its independent form. In these ligatures, the shapes of the constituent consonant signs are often contracted and sometimes even distorted beyond recognition. In the Bengali writing system, there are nearly such ligatures denoting consonant clusters. Although there exist a few visual formulas to construct some of these ligatures, many of them have to be learned by rote.
Recently, in a bid to lessen this burden on young learners, efforts have been made by educational institutions in the two main Bengali-speaking regions West Bengal and Bangladesh to address the opaque nature of many consonant clusters, and as a result, modern Bengali textbooks are beginning to contain more and more "transparent" graphical forms of consonant clusters, in which the constituent consonants of a cluster are readily apparent from the graphical form.
However, since this change is not as widespread and is not being followed as uniformly in the rest of the Bengali printed literature, today's Bengali-learning children will possibly have to learn to recognize both the new "transparent" and the old "opaque" forms, which ultimately amounts to an increase in learning burden. Unlike in western scripts Latin, Cyrillic, etc.
The presence and absence of this matra can be important. The letter-forms also employ the concepts of letter-width and letter-height the vertical space between the visible matra and an invisible baseline.
There is yet to be a uniform standard collating sequence sorting order of graphemes to be used in dictionaries, indices, computer sorting programs, etc.
Experts in both Bangladesh and India are currently working towards a common solution for this problem. The Bengali script in general has a comparatively shallow orthography , i. But grapheme-phoneme inconsistencies do occur in certain cases. One kind of inconsistency is due to the presence of several letters in the script for the same sound. In spite of some modifications in the 19th century, the Bengali spelling system continues to be based on the one used for Sanskrit,  and thus does not take into account some sound mergers that have occurred in the spoken language.
Another kind of inconsistency is concerned with the incomplete coverage of phonological information in the script. Many consonant clusters have different sounds than their constituent consonants. The Bengali writing system is, therefore, not always a true guide to pronunciation. The script is known as the Bengali alphabet for Bengali and its dialects and the Assamese alphabet for Assamese language with some minor variations.
Other related languages in the nearby region also make use of the Bengali alphabet like the Meitei language in the Indian state of Manipur , where the Meitei language has been written in the Bengali alphabet for centuries, though the Meitei script has been promoted in recent times.
There are various ways of Romanisation systems of Bengali created in recent years which have failed to represent the true Bengali phonetic sound. The Bengali alphabet has often been included with the group of Brahmic scripts for romanisation where the true phonetic value of Bengali is never represented. In the context of Bengali romanisation , it is important to distinguish transliteration from transcription. Transliteration is orthographically accurate i. Although it might be desirable to use a transliteration scheme where the original Bengali orthography is recoverable from the Latin text, Bengali words are currently Romanized on Wikipedia using a phonemic transcription , where the true phonetic pronunciation of Bengali is represented with no reference to how it is written.
Published under the imprint of Benglish Books, these are based on phonetic transliteration and closely follow spellings used in social media but for using an underline to describe soft consonants. Bengali nouns are not assigned gender, which leads to minimal changing of adjectives inflection. However, nouns and pronouns are moderately declined altered depending on their function in a sentence into four cases while verbs are heavily conjugated , and the verbs do not change form depending on the gender of the nouns.
As a head-final language, Bengali follows subject—object—verb word order , although variations to this theme are common. Determiners follow the noun , while numerals, adjectives , and possessors precede the noun. Yes-no questions do not require any change to the basic word order; instead, the low L tone of the final syllable in the utterance is replaced with a falling HL tone.
Additionally, optional particles e. Wh-questions are formed by fronting the wh-word to focus position, which is typically the first or second word in the utterance. Nouns and pronouns are inflected for case , including nominative , objective , genitive possessive , and locative. In most of the Bengali grammar books, cases are divided in to 6 categories and an additional possessive case possessive form is not recognized as a type of case by Bengali grammarian.
But in term of usages, cases are generally grouped in to only 4 categories. When counted, nouns take one of a small set of measure words. Similar to Japanese, the nouns in Bengali cannot be counted by adding the numeral directly adjacent to the noun. The noun's measure word MW must be used between the numeral and the noun. There is also the classifier -khana, and its diminutive form -khani , which only attach to nouns which are flat, long, square, or thin.
These are the least common of the classifiers. Measuring nouns in Bengali without their corresponding measure words e. However, when the semantic class of the noun is understood from the measure word, the noun is often omitted and only the measure word is used, e. In this sense, all nouns in Bengali, unlike most other Indo-European languages, are similar to mass nouns.
There are two classes of verbs: Non-finite verbs have no inflection for tense or person, while finite verbs are fully inflected for person first, second, third , tense present, past, future , aspect simple, perfect, progressive , and honor intimate, familiar, and formal , but not for number.
Conditional , imperative, and other special inflections for mood can replace the tense and aspect suffixes. The number of inflections on many verb roots can total more than Inflectional suffixes in the morphology of Bengali vary from region to region, along with minor differences in syntax.