Poverty in the United States

Der Bezugswert ist in vielen Fachgebieten ein bestimmter Zahlenwert, der zu Vergleichen herangezogen wird.

Weniger weit gehend strebt Sozialpolitik an, Menschen Sicherheit gegen die Wechselfälle des Lebens zu gewährleisten.

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Der Bezugswert ist in vielen Fachgebieten ein bestimmter Zahlenwert, der zu Vergleichen herangezogen wird.

According to the US Census, in 5. Among married couple families: Among single parent male or female families: Among individuals living alone: The US Census declared that in As of about half of those living in poverty are non-Hispanic white In FY , African American families comprised Poverty is also notoriously high on Native American reservations see Reservation poverty. The Lakota People's Law Project, [52] among other critics, allege that South Dakota "inappropriately equates economic poverty with neglect In , the national average of state discernment of neglect, as a percent of total maltreatment of foster children prior to their being taken into custody by the state, was In South Dakota the rate was Poverty in the Pine Ridge Reservation in particular has had unprecedented effects on its residents' longevity.

With either set of figures, that's the shortest life expectancy for any community in the Western Hemisphere outside Haiti, according to The Wall Street Journal. Census Bureau and the Agriculture Department , which claims that 3. The study claims that in 11 states, Louisiana, which has the highest rate, followed by North Carolina, Ohio, Kentucky, Texas, New Mexico, Kansas, South Carolina, Tennessee, Idaho and Arkansas, more than 20 percent of children under 5 are allegedly at risk of going hungry.

Receiving fewer than 1, calories per day The study was paid by ConAgra Foods , a large food company. Outside of the 49 million Americans living in food insecure homes, Many of the neighborhoods these children live in lack basic produce and nutritious food.

Households headed by single mothers are most likely to be affected. Some women are forced to make use of one or two diapers, using them more than once. This causes rashes and sanitation problems as well as health problems. Without diapers, children are unable to enter into daycare.

The lack of childcare can be detrimental to single mothers, hindering their ability to obtain employment. Nearly 14 million children are estimated to be served by Feeding America with over 3 million being of the ages of 5 and under.

A report by the National Center on Family Homelessness states the number of homeless children in the U. High levels of poverty, lack of affordable housing and domestic violence were cited as the primary causes. Poverty affects individual access to quality education.

That said, many communities address this by supplementing these areas with funds from other districts. Low income communities are often not able to afford the quality education that high income communities do which results in a cycle of poverty.

In the United States more than The vast majority living in poverty is uneducated people that end up increasing more unemployment Census. People with college degrees face less wage inequality, have better opportunities of getting out of poverty and are usually less involved with the criminal justice system childrensdefense. In recent years, a number of concerns raised about the official U. The findings of the panel were that "the official poverty measure in the United States is flawed and does not adequately inform policy-makers or the public about who is poor and who is not poor.

According to Michael, the official U. Other policy analysts, such as Rebecca Blank of the Brookings Institution , have criticized the outdated foundations of the formula for the federal poverty line of 3 x the subsistence food budget.

This formula is based on the Household Food Consumption Survey, which found that in emergency situation when funds were low, a family of three spent one third of their after tax income on food. From this fact it was extrapolated that three times the subsistence food budget was the poverty line for a family of three. Based on more current household surveys of food consumption it is estimated that in the food multiplier would be 7.

Many sociologists and government officials have argued that poverty in the United States is understated, meaning that there are more households living in actual poverty than there are households below the poverty threshold. According to William H. As far back as , the Bureau of Labor Statistics put forward suggested budgets for adequate family living.

These findings were also used by observers on the left when questioning the long-established view that most Americans had attained an affluent standard of living in the two decades following the end of the Second World War. Using a definition of relative poverty reflecting disposable income below half the median of adjusted national income , it was estimated that, between and , As noted above, the poverty thresholds used by the US government were originally developed during the Johnson administration's War on Poverty initiative in — Orshansky multiplied the cost of the food basket by a factor of three, under the assumption that the average family spent one third of its income on food.

While the poverty threshold is updated for inflation every year, the basket of food used to determine what constitutes being deprived of a socially acceptable minimum standard of living has not been updated since As a result, the current poverty line only takes into account food purchases that were common more than 50 years ago, updating their cost using the Consumer Price Index. Yet even that higher level could still be considered flawed, as it would be based almost entirely on food costs and on the assumption that families still spend a third of their income on food.

In fact, Americans typically spent less than one tenth of their after-tax income on food in According to John Schwarz, a political scientist at the University of Arizona:. Such fluctuations in local markets are, however, not considered in the Federal poverty threshold and thus leave many who live in poverty-like conditions out of the total number of households classified as poor. In , the Census Bureau introduced a new supplemental poverty measure aimed at providing a more accurate picture of the true extent of poverty in the United States.

The SPM extends the official poverty measure by taking account of many of the government programs designed to assist low-income families and individuals that are not included in the current official poverty measure.

The measures are contingent on how we conceive of and define poverty. Efforts to develop more refined measures have been dominated by researchers who intentionally want to provide estimates that reduce the magnitude of poverty. According to a academic study by MIT economist Peter Temin , Americans trapped in poverty live in conditions rivaling the developing world , and are forced to contend with substandard education, dilapidated housing, and few stable employment opportunities.

A report on the study in The Guardian stated:. Some 12 million Americans live with diseases associated with extreme poverty. According to Philip Alston , the United Nations special rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights, 19 million people live in deep poverty a total family income that is below one-half of the poverty threshold in the United States as of The Urban Institute reported in August that nearly half of Americans, or 4 in 10, are struggling to afford basic needs, such as housing, utilities, groceries and health care.

Some critics assert that the official U. According to a heavily criticised [] [] [] [] paper by The Heritage Foundation research fellow Robert Rector , of the Census Bureau to be below the poverty level in , the majority had adequate shelter, food, clothing and medical care. In addition, the paper stated that those assessed as below the poverty line in have a much higher quality of living than those who were identified by the census 40 years ago as being in poverty.

For example, in , In some cases the report even said that people currently living in poverty were actually better off than middle class people of the recent past.

According to The Heritage Foundation , the federal poverty line also excludes income other than cash income, especially welfare benefits. Thus, if food stamps and public housing were successfully raising the standard of living for poverty stricken individuals, then the poverty line figures would not shift, since they do not consider the income equivalents of such entitlements.

A study of low income single mothers titled Making Ends Meet, by Kathryn Edin , a sociologist at the University of Pennsylvania, showed that the mothers spent more than their reported incomes because they could not "make ends meet" without such expenditures.

According to Edin, they made up the difference through contributions from family members, absent boyfriends, off-the-book jobs, and church charity. According to Edin, for "most welfare-reliant mothers food and shelter alone cost almost as much as these mothers received from the government. For more than one-third, food and housing costs exceeded their cash benefits, leaving no extra money for uncovered medical care, clothing, and other household expenses. In the age of inequality, such anti-poverty policies are more important than ever, as higher inequality creates both more poverty along with steeper barriers to getting ahead, whether through the lack of early education, nutrition, adequate housing, and a host of other poverty-related conditions that dampen ones chances in life.

There have been many governmental and nongovernmental efforts to reduce poverty and its effects. These range in scope from neighborhood efforts to campaigns with a national focus. They target specific groups affected by poverty such as children, people who are autistic, immigrants, or people who are homeless. Efforts to alleviate poverty use a disparate set of methods, such as advocacy, education, social work, legislation, direct service or charity, and community organizing.

Recent debates have centered on the need for policies that focus on both "income poverty" and "asset poverty. Since , the number of asset poor families has increased by 21 percent from about one in five families to one in four families.

The program enables community-based nonprofits and government agencies to implement Individual Development Account or IDA programs, which are an asset-based development initiative. Every dollar accumulated in IDA savings is matched by federal and non-federal funds to enable households to add to their assets portfolio by buying their first home, acquiring a post-secondary education, or starting or expanding a small business. This credit allows them to get money from the government if their total tax outlay is less than the total credit earned, meaning it is not just a reduction in total tax paid but can also bring new income to the household.

There is an ongoing debate in the U. Poverty Rate has not changed, as the economy by itself has done little to reduce poverty. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The poverty line is calculated by using: The poverty line is based on information from the household consumption survey. If current consumption information were used it would be calculated as: This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. War on poverty and Welfare's effect on poverty. What's Class Got to do With It? American Society in the Twenty-first Century.

Rediscovering the American Vision. Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved August 26, Retrieved October 27, Routledge Handbook of Poverty in the United States. London and New York: Health in International Perspective". National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. Retrieved February 11, United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 20, CBS News , December 15, Retrieved February 10, One in five millennials lives in poverty, report finds.

Retrieved December 26, Retrieved March 13, How 35 countries compare on child poverty the U. Retrieved February 16, Child well-being in rich countries: Retrieved 14 October National Coalition for the Homeless , July Retrieved August 2, Retrieved August 9, BBC, June 22, Retrieved December 24, Retrieved June 5, Archived from the original on July 11, Retrieved September 16, Retrieved September 3, Retrieved 7 February Retrieved October 14, The reported expenditures were computed by dividing the average annual expenditures reduced by real property, income and other taxes by the average number of persons in the household.

Women and Poverty in 21st Century America. Can the trend be reversed? Es überrascht nicht, dass ähnlich miserable Verhältnisse auch in der Wohnsituation der Arbeiter zu finden waren. Typische Arbeiterwohnungen waren oftmals von mehreren Personen genutzt, daher eng und unhygienisch. Die Ansteckungsgefahr bei Krankheiten war erhöht und der Alkoholismus weit verbreitet. Es gibt sogar Belege, wonach es Haushalte gab, die zusätzlich wandernde Arbeiter beherbergten, um das Einkommen zu verbessern.

Diese Zustände, die sicherlich als unmenschlich bezeichnet werden können, wurden jedoch noch verheerender, zum Beispiel wenn jemand in der Familie die Arbeit und damit den Erwerb verlor. Ganze Arbeiterfamilien mussten sich mangels Kündigungsschutz und -fristen, Schutz gegen Unfall und Krankheit oder im Alter dem Kampf ums Überleben stellen. Die Arbeiterschutzgesetzgebung lag im Jahrhundert in der Kompetenz der Kantone.

Ihre ersten Gesetze waren unterschiedlich, und enthielten oftmals nur einen Schutz für Kinder, damit die obligatorische Schulpflicht überhaupt umgesetzt werden konnte. So gehörten Vorschriften über ein Mindestalter für Kinderarbeit sowie Verbote von Nachtarbeit und Arbeitszeitbeschränkungen zu den ersten Schutzgesetzen.

Ähnlich wurden auch Frauen geschützt. Zur Zeit vor der Totalrevision der Bundesverfassung hatten neun Kantone eigene Arbeiterschutzgesetze, die sich allesamt auf die Kinderarbeit konzentrierten. Lediglich drei davon — darunter Glarus mit dem am weitesten entwickelten Arbeiterschutzgesetz — beschränkten auch die Arbeitszeit der Erwachsenen.

Diese grossen Unterschiede zwischen den Kantonen und das Scheitern von Konkordatsgesprächen führten dazu, dass der Bund in der neuen Bundesverfassung die Kompetenz über den Fabrikarbeiterschutz erhielt.

Drei Jahre nach der Einführung der neuen Verfassung wurde vom Parlament das bekannte eidgenössische Fabrikarbeiterschutzgesetz eingeführt. Es richtete sich am Arbeitsschutzgesetz im Kanton Glarus aus und enthielt die Beschränkung der Arbeitszeit auf elf Stunden pro Tag beziehungsweise die Einführung der Stunden-Woche, das Verbot von Kinderarbeit sowie die Errichtung von drei eidgenössischen Fabrikinspektoraten.

In einem Referendum wurde das Gesetz knapp ' gegen ' Stimmen angenommen. Die nächste grössere Revision hätte ein neues Fabrikgesetz am Juni bringen sollen. Die Inkraftsetzung wurde jedoch trotz Publikation im Bundesblatt verschoben, da zeitgleich der Erste Weltkrieg ausbrach.

Auch dieses Gesetz trat erst nach der Kriegszeit am 1. April in Kraft. Es kann gesagt werden, dass der Erste Weltkrieg im Vergleich zu den Nachbarländern der Schweiz nicht besonders zu schaffen machte. Die Not der Bevölkerung, die durch den Kriegsausbruch entstand und eine Verteuerung der Lebensmittel sowie Lohnausfälle wegen der Mobilmachung mit sich brachte, wurden vor allem von den staatlichen und gemeinnützigen Organisationen übernommen.

Rund ein Sechstel der Bevölkerung erhielt im Jahr weniger als das Existenzminimum, während gleichzeitig die Teuerung eine Verdoppelung der Preise mit sich brachte. Die Einführung der eidgenössischen Kriegssteuer verstärkte den Unmut gegen den Bundesrat. Zeitgleich wurden in der Schweiz die Kongresse der Internationalen Sozialisten abgehalten, die die revolutionären Bestrebungen in Russland mitverfolgten.

In einem Flugblatt forderten sie unter anderem:. Die ersten Streiks am 9. November verliefen ruhig, die Zürcher Arbeiterschaft entschloss sich jedoch, den Streik am Dieser führte aber zu gewalttätigen Auseinandersetzungen zwischen den demonstrierenden Arbeitern und dem Militär. Am Folgetag wurden die Fabriken, die Eisenbahnen und die öffentlichen Verwaltungen von rund ' Demonstrierenden besetzt.

In den folgenden Tagen wurden die Hauptverantwortlichen für den Streik in öffentlichen Verfahren zu verschiedenen Gefängnisstrafen verurteilt. Es kann gesagt werden, dass aus der Sicht des revolutionären Flügels der Streik eine Niederlage war. Trotz der Niederlage wurden jedoch die politischen Forderungen der Sozialdemokraten in die Politik getragen: Die Nationalratswahlen wurden erstmals unter dem Proporzwahlrecht durchgeführt die Sozialdemokraten verdoppelten ihre Sitzzahl auf 20 Prozent , und in der folgenden Legislatur wurden mehr als ein Dutzend Gesetze und Gesetzesänderungen beschlossen, die allesamt das Arbeitsrecht und das Sozialwesen betrafen.

Sie wurden alle vom bürgerlich-konservativen Block im Parlament abgelehnt und von Volk und Ständen verworfen. Mit dieser Radioansprache wurde die Zeit eingeläutet, in der es schnell zu sozialpolitischen Reformen kam: Juli wurde das Bundesgesetz zur Schaffung der Alters- und Hinterlassenenversicherung mit einem wuchtigen Mehr angenommen.

Die Abwesenheit von Streiks bzw. Kündigungen und häufige Betriebswechsel wurden zum individuellen Ersatz für gewerkschaftliche Vertretung. Flankiert wurde betriebliche Sozialpolitik von Neuerungen wie dem betrieblichen Vorschlagswesen und werbewirksamen Massnahmen zur Identifikation mit der Firma, beides Managementtechniken aus den USA. Besonders diese unbeliebten Intensivierungen von Arbeitsabläufen waren es, die Kündigungen und Fluktuation auslösten — was durch betriebliche Sozialpolitik kompensiert werden sollte.

Trotz des offensichtlichen Ausbaus der sozialen Sicherheit sind Armut und Not auch in der reichen Schweiz — wie in den übrigen modernen Industriestaaten — nicht verschwunden. Die Verdoppelung der Sozialhilfeausgaben im letzten Jahrzehnt des