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The procession took 42 minutes to pass a given point. Special Edition of the Dumfries and Galloway Standard- containing an elaborate account of the proceedings in this town on the 21st of July was published at five o'clock on the evening of that day ; and of this and next day's issue combined over nineteen thousand copies were printed. In dieser Ausführungsform werden die kontextuellen Entitätsdaten von dem Datenknoten direkt von der Komponente des IT-Systems empfangen. Dalrymple schrieb an den Kommandanten in Fort William:.

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Paivio konstatiert jedoch die explizite verbale und gleichzeitig visuelle Kodierung von Wissensstrukturen als lernförderlich, da zwei ganz unterschiedliche Zugriffsmöglichkeiten auf die Wissensstrukturen ermöglicht werden: Eine Methode im kognitiv-linguistisch inspirierten Metaphernunterricht sollte des- halb auch unbedingt die Arbeit mit Visualisierungen sein, in denen sowohl Herkunfts- als auch Zielbereich bildlich gestaltet werden.

Die konkrete Unter- richtserfahrung mit Visualisierungen dieser Art hat gezeigt, dass diese Form der Reetymologisierung durchaus auch für Heiterkeit sorgen kann, und auch der gewünschte Aha-Effekt bleibt nicht aus, was häufig interessante Lerner- folge nach sich zieht. Lehrbuchtexte sollten deshalb zunächst immer ganz bewusst auf die Verwen- dung themenspezifischer linguistischer Metaphern untersucht werden. In ei- nem zweiten Schritt müssten die extrahierten Beispiele ihrem wahrscheinlichs- ten Herkunftsbereich zugeordnet werden, und aufgrund dieser Systematik dann eine Auswahl der explizit in den Unterricht zu integrierenden konzeptu- ellen Metaphern getroffen werden.

Wie in Juchem und Krennmayr diskutiert, ist dieses aufwändige und teilweise komplizierte Verfahren. Diese Wortschatznet- ze dienen dann als Grundlage für die Umgestaltung bereits existierenden oder die Erarbeitung neuen Unterrichtsmaterials. Die kognitive Motiviertheit der übergeordneten konzeptuellen Metapher bietet hier Erklärungsansätze für die subsumierten linguistischen Beispiele.

Dem Lerner wird damit explizit eine Verknüpfung- und entsprechende systematische Speichermöglichkeit angebo- ten, die ihm das Erlernen und Merken des neuen und teilweise bereits bekann- ten, aber in neuem Kontext auftretenden Wortschatzes erleichtern soll. Visua- lisierungen können diesen Prozess weiter unterstützen, da sie, wie bereits angesprochen, den Effekt der doppelten Kodierung bieten. Bei konsequenter Systematisierung nach übergeordneten konzeptuellen Metaphern und aktiver Zuordnung bzw.

Abbildung der Wissensstrukturen der Herkunftsdomäne auf die Zieldomäne im Unterricht kann schon die Visualisierung eines einzigen linguistischen Beispiels für die entsprechende konzeptuelle Metapher sozusa- gen als Unterrichtsimpuls ausreichen. Die hier vorgeschlagene Strategie birgt zwar in Ansätzen ebenfalls die von Boers und Lindstromberg Die systematische Auseinandersetzung mit metaphorischer Sprache muss im Curriculum fest verankert werden und sollte sich deshalb auch in der didaktischen Auf- bereitung der Lehrmaterialien widerspiegeln.

Ergebnisse dieses Forschungsprojekts oder anderer korpuslinguistisch- basierter Diskursanalysen sind wertvolle Ressourcen für die Neuentwicklung oder Umges- taltung von Fremdsprachenlehrwerken.

Die Unterrichtszeit wird also sinnvoll genutzt, indem den Lernern zunächst das konzeptuelle Skelett bewusst gemacht und dann in einem Folgeschritt mit Fleisch versehen wird. Insbesondere im Bereich des Fachsprachenunter- richts, wie dem Wirtschaftsenglisch, sind deshalb dringend empirische Stu- dien gefordert, welche das Potential dieses Ansatzes absichern und Lehrbuchautoren und -verlagen eine überzeugende Entscheidungsgrundlage bieten.

Die hier in Auszügen vorgestellte Studie ist als ein Schritt in diese Rich- tung gedacht. Allen voran sind dabei die Publikationen des belgischen Teams um Frank Boers zu nennen.

Schon seit Ende der 90er Jahre werden dort empirische Studien zum Vokabelunterricht mit einem speziellen Fokus auf dem Erwerb von Mehrwortstrukturen, wie komplexe Verben, Redewendun- gen und Metaphern durchgeführt. Boers , Berendi , Caballero ,. Li , Skoufaki Die kurzfristige Behaltensleistung kognitiv- linguistisch aufbereiteten im Vergleich zu traditionell unterrichteten metapho- rischen Wortschatzes und dessen Wiedergabe in einfachen Aufzählungen, Lü- ckentests oder Zuordnungsaufgaben steht dabei im Mittelpunkt.

Aufgrund dieser bisher für die Testungen gewählten geschlossenen Aufgabenformate spielt die Integration metaphorischer Ausdrücke in den produktiven Lern- wortschatz derzeit noch eine untergeordnete Rolle. Dabei sind die Ergebnisse überzeugend: Das bedeutet, dass nicht nur der passive Wortschatz durch den Einsatz kogni- tiv-linguistisch inspirierten Metaphernunterrichts auf- und ausgebaut werden kann, sondern auch der aktive, was die Auswertung der eben genannten frei- en Schreibaufgabe zeigt.

Gerade die produktiven Fertigkeiten könnten also vom systematischen Konzepterwerb profitieren, erhalten Lerner hierdurch doch eine Art Vorlage an die Hand, die sie selbst vielfältig und kreativ mit Vokabeln füllen können.

Natürlich birgt diese generelle Aussage, wie die in Abschnitt 3 diskutierten Beispiele zeigen, immer auch die Gefahr der kreati- ven Übergeneralisierung, also der Wortneuschöpfung oder der Ausdehnung der konzeptuellen Metapher auf bisher nicht gängige metaphorische Verbin- dungen. Solange diese metaphorischen Neuschöpfungen sich jedoch logisch der übergeordneten konzeptuellen Metapher zuordnen lassen, scheinen sie Essentiell für die Vermeidung kreativer, aber explizit falscher metaphorischer Übertragungen in freien Textproduktio- nen ist die bewusste kontrastive Sprachbetrachtung im Unterricht.

Selbst Sprachen, die so eng verwandt sind wie Englisch und Deutsch, differieren in ihrem metaphorischen Sprachgebrauch, sowohl in der Wahl der Herkunftsbe- reiche für einen bestimmten Zielbereich als auch in der Bandbreite, also dem Grad der Nutzung des Vokabulars eines Herkunftsbereichs für verschiedene Zielbereiche. Zusammenfassend lässt sich also festhalten, dass der Fokus bisheriger Unter- suchungen zum tatsächlichen Metaphernunterricht auf der Testung der eher kurzfristigen Behaltensleistung explizit unterrichteter Metaphern und deren Wiedergabe bzw.

Anwendung in geschlossenen Aufgaben lag. Des Weiteren ist darauf hinzuweisen, dass bei der Mehrzahl der bisher für Studien herange- zogenen Lernergruppen von einem relativ homogenen Sprachniveau ausge- gangen werden kann.

Niveauübergreifende Aussagen zur all- gemeinen Annahme und Nutzbarmachung kognitiv-linguistischen Meta- phernunterrichts sind in der Literatur deshalb bisher nicht zu finden. Zu ü- berprüfende Hypothesen, wonach Lerner auf mittlerem Sprachniveau am meisten von Metaphernunterricht profitieren Boers a , beruhen auf der. Eine kontrastive Untersuchung, die sich auch speziell mit dem Wirtschaftsdiskurs im Englischen und Deutschen beschäftigt, liefert Jäkel Die im Folgenden vorgestellten Ausschnitte einer experimentellen Studie un- terscheiden sich in mehreren Punkten von den bisher publizierten und hier nur kurz angesprochenen empirischen Studien.

Zunächst handelt es sich dabei nicht um eine Studie unter Laborbedingungen sondern um eine reguläre Un- terrichtseinheit eines laufenden Wirtschaftsenglischkurses.

Die Vergleichbarkeit der An- zahl der Teilnehmer auf den verschieden CEF-Niveaustufen in den beiden Gruppen konnte jedoch durch die stufenweise Randomisierung gewährleistet werden. Ebenfalls wurde auf die Vergleichbarkeit der Rahmenbedingungen, was Ort und Zeit des stattfindenden Unterrichts anbetrifft, geachtet: Auch die Lehrkraft war für beide Gruppen gleich und kannte weder die Forschungsfrage noch die Auswertungsmodalitäten.

Sowohl die geforderte Tiefe der kognitiven Be- schäftigung mit dem zu lernenden Vokabular als auch der Umfang der Visua- lisierungen ist für beide Gruppen gleichgehalten.

Wie in Abschnitt 1. Unterstreichen Sie alle Begriffe, die mit den finanziellen Problemen und Lösungsmög- lichkeiten zu tun haben. Wie in Schaubild 1. In dieser E-Mail erklärt ein Unternehmer einem Unterneh- mensberater seine individuellen Probleme mit dem Zahlungsfluss und bittet ihn um Rat. Das ursprüngliche Textmaterial entstammte auch hier dem Lehr- werk S. Grundsätzlich müssten sich also beide Lerngruppen mit den gleichen Vokabeln auseinandergesetzt haben und auch der Grad der kognitiven Be- schäftigung mit dem Wortschatz sollte vergleichbar gewesen sein; einziger Unterschied war die didaktische Anwendung der konzeptuellen Metaphern- theorie in der Experimentalgruppe.

Analogien zwischen dem pulsierenden Blutkreislauf, der Lebensader des Menschen, dem Wasserkreislauf, dem Ursprung allen Lebens und dem Geldkreislauf, der Lebensader der Wirtschaft, wurden gebildet.

Im Gegensatz dazu erhielt die Kontroll- gruppe den Arbeitsauftrag, alle Probleme, welche das E-Mail schreibende Un- ternehmen mit seinem Geldfluss hat, sowie die angedachten Lösungswege aus der gleichen E-Mail herauszusuchen und zu markieren. In einem nächsten Schritt wurden beide Gruppen mit Visualisierungen kon- frontiert, denen sie die zuvor eigens extrahierten Wörter und Phrasen zuord- nen sollten. Während die Kontrollgruppe hier allerdings ein für den Wirt- schaftsdiskurs typisches Pfeildiagramm erhielt, welches die inhaltlichen Zusammenhänge veranschaulicht, durfte sich die Experimentalgruppe mit Handzeichnungen auseinandersetzen, welche die verschiedenen linguisti- schen Beispiele der Flüssigkeitsmetapher visualisieren.

Der kognitive Auf- Im Anschluss wurden beide Gruppen mit dem gleichen Lückentest konfron- tiert: Aus einer Auswahl von 29 Wörtern davon 12 Distraktoren sollten 17 Lücken in insgesamt 14 Einzelsätzen bestückt werden. Die Hälfte der Sätze testete dabei das im Unterricht explizit behandelte Vokabular, also Wörter und Phrasen, die Teil der bearbeiteten E-Mail waren und welche die Studierenden für die Zuordnung zu den Visualisierungen extrahiert haben sollten.

Die an- dere Hälfte der Sätze testete darüber hinausgehende linguistische Beispiele derselben konzeptuellen Metapher. Ausgehend von der Hypothese, dass kog- nitiv-linguistisch inspirierter Metaphernunterricht sowohl die Behaltensleis- tung erhörte als auch bei der Dekodierung unbekannten Vokabulars desselben konzeptuellen Rahmens half, wurde diese Zweiteilung 8 des Lückentests ge- wählt. Die Lerner sollten sich also in der Rolle des Unternehmensbe- raters kritisch mit den angesprochenen Lücken im Geldfluss auseinanderset- zen und dem Unternehmer schriftlich einen Rat zur Lösung seiner Probleme erteilen.

Auch hier erhielten beide Gruppen die gleiche Aufgabe. Insgesamt liegen aus dieser Unterrichtseinheit drei theoretisch auswertbare Datensätze pro Lerner vor: Da es sich bei 1 jedoch eher um eine Art Unter- richtsprotokoll handelt, welches belegt, dass die Lerner sich auch tatsächlich mit dem anvisierten Vokabular beschäftigt und sich kognitiv mit den Visuali- sierungen auseinandergesetzt haben, bleibt Datensatz 1 an dieser Stelle un- berücksichtigt.

Wie die vorliegenden Ergebnisse zeigen, haben die Studierenden der Experimentalgruppe beachtlich von der Integrati- on der konzeptuellen Metapherntheorie in den Wirtschaftsenglischunterricht profitiert. Für den Bereich der kurzfristigen kontrollierten Abfrage und Wie- dergabe von Wortschatz kann dieser Ansatz also durchaus als sehr positiv e- valuiert werden.

Fraglich ist jedoch, ob der hier gewählte Ansatz auch positi- ven Einfluss auf die produktiven Fertigkeiten der Lerner ausübt. Das Augenmerk soll hier also auf Datenmaterial 3 der Schreibaufgabe liegen.

Die Ergebnisse einiger per Los ausgewählter Studierender konnten deshalb nicht mit ausgewertet werden, was leider zu einer erneuten Verkleinerung der Gruppen führte. Die Texte wurden auf das Zielvokabular hin kodiert und für jeden Lerner zwei Summenscores festgehalten: Was im kontrollierten Umfeld noch hervorragend zu funktionieren scheint, setzt sich im eigenverantwortlichen, produktiven Schreibprozess nur schleppend durch.

Auf der Suche nach Gründen sollte hier allerdings bedacht werden, dass die stete Nutzung der ersten drei Ausdrücke wahrscheinlich auf die Häufigkeit ihres Vorkommens im Lehrbuch und nur geringfügig auf den Einsatz der konzep- tuellen Metapherntheorie im Unterricht zurückzuführen ist. Auch für das zweite Beispielset könnte anstelle der konzeptuellen Metapherntheorie die Transparenz und damit begünstigte Erlernbarkeit des Vokabulars sowie die Ähnlichkeit mit dem Deutschen als Grund aufgeführt werden.

Interessant sind jedoch die beiden folgenden Ausschnitte aus Sätzen: Obwohl beide Beispiele so nicht im Wörterbuch oder in Korpora zu finden sind, haben Tests mit Muttersprachlern bestätigt, dass diese Sätze problemlos verstanden, ja sogar teilweise als semantisch kor- Die konzeptuelle Metapherntheorie hat diese beiden Lerner hier also ganz konkret befähigt, ihren Wissenstransfer kreativ zu ges- talten.

Konzeptuelle Metaphern haben also vermutlich auch das Potential, schwächere Lerner in ihrem rezeptiven und produktiven Wortschatzerwerb zu unterstützen. Da es sich bei dem hier vorgestellten Abschnitt um den ersten Teil der Studie handelt, wurden die Studierenden tatsächlich mit weiteren Übungen dieser Art konfrontiert und die Ergebnisse steigerten sich auch zunehmend vgl.

Indem die Studierenden Einblicke in das Netz konzeptueller Metaphern erhalten, wird ihnen die Möglichkeit gegeben neues und - was viel wichtiger ist - bereits erworbenes Vokabular konzeptkonform in diesem neuen Zielbereich kreativ einzusetzen. Die Menge der zu speichernden Vokabeln wird damit nicht erhöht, sondern es werden lediglich neue Verknüpfungen angelegt, die dann aufgrund der vielfältigen Abrufbarkeit in Zukunft auch schneller verfügbar sein sollten.

Wie in Abschnitt 3 gezeigt, muss sich die Auswertung dieser Studie zwar teil- weise sehr an die Rahmenbedingungen anpassen, liefert dafür aber auch au- thentische Schülerproduktionen. Auch hat dieser kurze Einblick gezeigt, dass die konzeptuellen Metaphern zwar unmittelbar den Wortschatz in der ge- schlossenen Testung beeinflussen, die weitere eventuell auch kreative Nut- zung in der offenen Schreibaufgabe allerdings noch in den Anfängen steckt.

Gerade für diesen Bereich der produktiven Sprachproduktion sollten jedoch kognitiv-linguistisch aufbereitete Unterrichtsmaterialien zum Einsatz konzep- tueller Metaphern entwickelt und deren Nutzen empirisch evaluiert werden.

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Google Book Search helps readers discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web at http: Special Edition of the Dumfries and Galloway Standard- containing an elaborate account of the proceedings in this town on the 21st of July was published at five o'clock on the evening of that day ; and of this and next day's issue combined over nineteen thousand copies were printed.

The publication was completely ex- hausted within forty-eight hours ; and numerous applications continuing to come in, the narrative is now reproduced in book form.

Errors incidental to unavoidable haste have been cor- rected where observed ; and the record thus revised has been extended by the inclusion of the magnificent speech which Lord Rosebery delivered in Glasgow under the aus- pices of the Burns Exhibitiop Committee.

Additional illus- trations have also been introduced. Among these are a view of the impressive ceremony at the Mausoleum, and a very effective impression of Turnerelli's sculpture of the Muse of Poetry finding Burns at the plough. To both gentlemen we have to express our indebtedness for permission to use the prints. Numerous photographs of the procession have been secured by various artists, and are on sale at the bookshops.

These we have not sought to embody ; for excellent though most of them are, it is impossible to make a selection which would convey any adequate idea of the length and pictur- esqueness of the unique parade. One remark is suggested by them. They reveal no dense crowding at any point of the route. The reason is, that the windows of shops and houses were packed with spectators, and the people in the streets kept position while the march went past.

An immense number of strangers visited the town ; and but for panic alarums which had been raised of the possibilities of accident from swaying multitudes in narrow thoroughfares — an ambulance corps was a part of the Digitized by LiOOQ IC advertised precautionary measures — the number would per- haps have been doubled or trebled.

Even then there would have been space sufficient for the procession to pass in perfect order. There was no accident attributable to the day's proceed- ings. We have the utmost satisfaction in accentuating this fact in the present publication, which forms their fullest chronicle. It will, we trust, be preserved as such in many a Scottish home.

For those proceedings, which were more than national, will long possess a wide-spread interest. The fame that Burns predicted for himself a hundred years ago will be greater a hundred years hence ; and the words of Lord Rosebery, who has witnessed and taken part in not a few splendid pageants in this and other lands, will then be recalled.

Dumfries, August 6, The first edition, consisting of copies, was sold out within ten days. There being numerous orders still un- executed, a second edition of copies is now issued. A description of the reception of the Australian wreath on the 7th of August has been added in the form of an appendix, and the reports of Lord Rosebery's speeches have been com- pared with the authorised text.

It is not the least remark- able of many evidences of the wide-spread interest in the Dumfries demonstration that the first edition of this account of it has been so quickly exhausted and a second called for. In the history of the local press there is absolutely no parallel to this experience.

Yesterday his countrymen did not come to bury the poet but to praise him. All that could be buried of Burns was committed to the earth a hundred years ago, From lands beyond the seas and from many parts of our own land beautiful wreaths were sent or brought to be placed upon his tomb. There never descended upon the grave of any man in such manner and from quarters so remote so many of those chaste symbols of affec- tionate regard. The tomb and the space around it are literally shrouded with wreaths.

But these were not bedewed by tears though composed in love. The time is too distant from the poet's death to be consecrated to sorrow. Yester- day's pageant was that of a festival, not that of a funeral. The decorated town, with Venetian masts erected in the streets, and gay-coloured streamers, the parade of arts and ndustries, civic authority and fraternal association, in the picturesque and imposing procession, the equal of which has not been seen in our midst, was expressive of pride, not Digitized by LiOOQ IC of pain.

Homage was done at the shrine of a hero, of a prophet, by a people conscious of his living influence, and thankful for it. But Burns's life towards and at its close was peculiarly tragic. With the utmost delicacy, with the deepest sympathy, Lord Rosebery told the story afresh, in language which will not bear revision.

It might have been happier for Burns, he thinks, had he died earlier. For what is best in Burns, not for what is worst, Jie is by reactionary minds most con- demned. It was this class of mind which had no word of censure for his excesses of appetite, but was ready to deprive him of his means of livelihood because of his political opinions, his sympathy with the cause of the French Revolu- tion. There is much in the writings of Burns that is objectionable ; but the most of it would never have been published by himself.

In spite of it he is beloved and his fame extends. Ill be more respected a hundred years after I am dead than I am at present. On that point we must all be unanimous. Burns had honour in his life-time, but his fame has rolled like a snowball since his death, and it rolls on. There is indeed no parallel to it in the world. It sets the calcula- tions of compound interest at defiance. He bears aloft the banner of the essential equality of men. His birthday is celebrated a hundred and thirty-seven years after its occurrence more universally than that of any other human being.

He reigns over a greater dominion than any empire that the world has ever seen. Neither does the ardour of his devotees decrease. Ayr and Ellisland, Mauchline and Dumfries, are still shrines to countless pilgrims. Burns statues are a hardy annual.

Barns clubs spring up like mushrooms after rain. The editions of Burns are as the sands of the sea. The produc- tion of Burns manuscripts was a lucrative branch of industry until it was checked by the untimely interference of the law.

No canonised name in the calendar excites so blind and enthusiastic adoration. Whatever Burns may have contemplated in the boldest flight of his imagination, what- ever dream he may have fondled in the wildest moments of his elation, must have fallen utterly short of the reality, as we know to-day. Our readers will not fail to be struck by the -critical penetration displayed by these ; and to this quality Digitized by LiOOQ IC 8 is added a strain of poetic feeling in the letter of the Italian Mario Pilo.

The service that Burns has rendered to his country and to Humanity is unspeakably great. It is the only example in history of a language made classic by the genius of a single man. Burns has preserved the guid auld Scottish tongue ; he has. The secret of his power is not so much his literary talent, though that is great, as the virile personality which enters into all his compositions. He is not dead, says the Queen of Roumania in her tribute of verse. He lives in his deathless song, and the song is deathless because he lives in it.

His mag- netic influence was phenomenal when he lived in the flesh. It survives in his verse when the flesh has long since sub- sided into dust. With his death passed all that was gross or impure. The clear spirit stood revealed, and soared at once to its accepted place among the fixed stars in the firmament of the rare immortals. The hundredth anniversary of the death of Robert Burns, which occurred in Dumfries on the 21st of July, , was made the occasion of a popular demonstration, more imposing in its character, and which has evoked more widespread interest than any that has been witnessed in Dumfries within living memory, or of which the tradition lingers in the community.

The work of organising was entered upon in good time, the initiative being taken by the Dumfries Burns Club immediately after their last 25th of January dinner. With the committee which the Club appointed were afterwards associated some other representative gentlemen of the town and district ; and with the active assistance of Sir Robert Reid, M.

Provost Glover, as the official head of the town, appropriately filled the position of chairman of the executive ; and in Mr Philip pulley, of the Inland Revenue, they found an indomitable and enterprising secretary. In addition to the gentle- men on whom the burden of the arrangements lay, there was a lengthy list of honorary office-bearers, including many names eminent in literature, as well as those of gentlemen occupying out- standing representative positions.

Appended is the complete roll of office-bearers and officials, honorary and active: Bayard, Mr Augustine Birrell, M. Maxwell, Convener of Kirkcudbright- shire ; Mr R. Black- lock, solicitor ; Mr W. Clerk, Langlands ; Mr J. Carmont, banker ; Mr R. Carruthers of Huntingdon ; Mr S. Charteries, Rosefield ; Bailie L.

Dinwiddie ; Mr W. Dinwiddie, Bridgebank House ; Mr J. Daniel, chemist ; Mr J. Geddes, solicitor ; Mr H. Sharpe Gordon, solicitor, secretary to the Burn? Club ; Mr J. Grierson, town clerk ; Mr J. Hiddleston, Dean of Guild ; Mr W. Maxwell, bookseller; Mr T. Newbigging, Stewart Hall ; Mr J.

Primrose, solicitor ; Mr C. Phyn, procurator-fiscal ; Mr H. Watson, editor of the Standard. Honor- ary Secretary — Mr Philip Sulley, surveyor of taxes. To the Earl of Rosebery, K. Mr Augustine Birrell, M. On Saturday Lord Rosebery and his host drove out to Friars' Carse, a place which is intimately associated with the memory of Burns, as the residence of his friend, Captain Riddell of Glenriddell.

There they were received by Dr Rutherford, medical superintendent of the Crichton Royal Institution, to which the estate now belongs, and the Rev. John Paton, chairman of the house committee of the institution.

They afterwards walked "adown winding Nith " to Ellisland, where Burns and his " Bonnie Jean " took up house together, and which witnessed his struggles with adversity as a farmer and his greatest flights of fancy as a poet. Mr and Miss Grierson shewed them over the house and steading, pointing out the window on which the poet's writing is to be seen and the stackyard associated with the composition of the most touching of his lyrics — "To Mary in Heaven.

The same evening Sir Robert Reid entertained the members of the executive to dinner at Woodbank. Michael's Church, where the Rev. John Paton was the preacher, and they occupied the magistrates' seats. On Monday the distinguished party proceeded by rail to Dalbeattie, and spent part of the day in driving along the Colvend shore, a district rich in natural beauty and literary association, affording as it has done material for the pens of Scott and Crockett.

In the evening Sir Robert Reid entertained the members of the Town Councils of Dumfries, Maxwelltown, Annan, Kirkcudbright, Sanquhar, and Lochmaben, with a number of ex-councillors and the officials of the respective burghs, to dinner in the Assembly Rooms. In anticipation of the anniversary a letter was addressed by the Honorary Secretary to a wide circle of persons of literary dis- tinction, in the following terms: Then there will be assembled statesmen, poets, writers, and men of thought and culture, with the representatives of every land where our tongue is spoken.

From the Queen of Roumania. Who'd laugh like thee and sing like thee, And fecht at hame sae can tie, O! And be so brave and true, and say: I went and took auld Robin Gray As guidman for my mither's love!

A spark of thee and of thine art Hath wander'd with me far and long. Let the ripple of thy laughter Rustling round me fly, Gin a body kiss a body Coming through the rye! And let the poor Jennies Beware o' the pennies, The siller an' Ian', That gae them the hank'ring The humming and cank'ring — The peevish and jealous And crazy auld man! True to yourselves and Charlie! He's your heart and lip and head!

Scots wham Bruce has aften led— Scots wha hae wi' Wallace bled! I have no copy of Burns here. I know his songs by heart, but not the Scotch spelling. But the Scotch bag-pipe has more power and resonance than the pipe of Pierre Dupont of Lyons ; and, in addition, your Robert Burns lived a hundred years too soon. It is an infinite honour to be allowed to offer the expression of my warmest affection and admiration for the poet whose centenary you are about to celebrate.

What higher place can we give to Robert Burns than that which he occupies by divine right in every heart in which the love of nature and the sense of song are present? From Madame Adam, Editor of the Paris ". In haste between two journeys. Paris, 13th July, When one reflects that Robert Burns was the son of a peasant, that he composed his first verses at the age of 15, that he was ignorant of all that had gone before him, and that as Fame says he was so much in advance of his period that it took 40 years to find his successor — that Byron, Moore, and the great modern school of poetry came after him — one is astonished at his penetra- tion, the insight of his genius, and deep questions offer them- selves for examination by cultured men.

Is it this ignorance and the lowly rank of Burns which ex- plain his extraordinary penetration? The communication with his own thoughts, some lines of Pope, some pieces of Shakespeare, formed the inspiration which nourished ideas both lofty and genial.

His satires are a proof of the purity of his instincts. He criticises easily a society in which he had never mixed — a society which had no power to draw him within its circle. His poverty, his vices, make of him a revolutionary who approaches Nihilism. Digitized by LiOOQ IC i6 He is a physician who intoxicates himself with his own drugs that he may understand the nature of the disease he would treat, and his power is such that although contaminated by the draught he has taken of his own freewill, he extracts from it fancies the most delightful, the most enthusiastic, the most lyric.

The conditions under which his life passed — conditions under- gone and willed by himself — make of him the most engaging man it is possible to study, the greatest example of a many-sided nature one can admire. Comedy, humour, feeling, nobility, deep philosophy and brilliant fancy, shew him to be a true disciple of Shakespeare. Like him, he has the gift of mixing things material and visible with the world of his fantastic and ideal creatures, and wiil-o'-the wisps, witches, and spirits which haunt deserted ruins fill his poems.

He pretends to believe in them as his fellow- peasants do, and it is perhaps to their simple tales that Burns owes the awakening of his imagination. Nothing moves one more in Burns than his descriptions of the happiness of the humble. In the whole of English litera- ture there is no more beautiful tribute than his rendered to the virtues of the peasant, nor any finer description of labour's re- wards. He had the happiness of finding discriminating patrons. The literary society of his time and of his country honoured him as he deserved to be, and his country and Scottish society honour him still.

Comedie Francaise, Administrateur General. To furnish a complete appreciation of Robert Burns would require an amount of leisure which my administrative duties here do not leave at my disposal.

I would not, however willingly, allow the centenary of the great Scottish poet to pass without sending as a flowerlet from France a thought regarding this noble, sincere, powerful spirit — powerful, because he has drawn from his native soil the inspiration of his songs and the patriotic sentiment of his writings.

How can Frenchmen forget that from Robert Burns there broke forth a sigh of sorrow at the tomb of one of her dead heroes? Digitized by GooQle 17 This man could say with pride: I am a peasant — a child of nature. He taught us to love nature. Thereby he gave the lead- ing note to our poets of France, and in the bouquet of French poetry of the 19th century we shall find the red blossom from the Scottish heaths with which Robert Burns has adorned it— a blossom we shall not let wither.

Beaugency, 15th June, What little I know of Burns gives me the idea of a great poet — truly sincere and very savoury: I must express my great regret that my ignorance does not permit me to say more.

I feel deeply honoured by your kindness in inviting me to contribute towards celebrating the glory of your great National Poet, Robert Burn? I have translated several of his most beautiful songs, and my very good friend, Frans de Cort, the Flemish poet, has translated at least fifty.

On the occasion of the centenary my daughter and I have composed several verses in honour of the illustrious poet and in- imitable songster of the entire world. If our humble homage is well received by you, by the Dum- fries Burns Club, as well as by the poet's countrymen, our hearts will indeed be satisfied. If a translation of the two songs is needed we shall gladly make it.

Budapest, Hungary, 8th July, Permit me to send my felicitations on the occasion of the splendid national festival which is about to take place on the anniversary of the apotheosis of the great Scottish poet, Robert Burns.

Burris's works are exceedingly well translated into Hungarian by one who is himself an eminent poet Joseph Levay, Prefect of Miskoler , and are a favourite study among my countrymen.

Allow me to place my homage on the Mausoleum of your illustrious poet, in the name of my Hungarian colleagues, members of the Petofi Club, upon the tomb of this great genius, who has rendered himself immortal throughout all free nations, and accept my most cordial greetings for your Burns Club.

God bless your country. Brussels, 29th June, I consider your Burns one of the most beautiful poets of whom humanity has cause to be proud. I admire and love him as a friend, as a brother in the spirit. He is at one and the same time strong and sweet, and has nothing in common with those scribblers in metre, these rhetoricians, those imposters who are the plague of literature, and who, unfortunately, too often usurp the place and influence of the poets of nature, artists, and born geniuses.

My heart will be with you on the 21st July. From Angelo de Gubematis. Rome, 21st June, To the whole of the great series of poets, which commenced in the middle of the last century and ended with the middle of this, whose restless spirit was ever seeking vaster horizons, whose sensitive, storm-tossed soul seemed to find a kind of madness even in their own sufferings, one can well apply the verse in which Robert Burns humbled himself before God — Thou knowest that Thou hast formed me With passions wild and strong ; And list'ning to their witching voice Has often led me wrong.

In Germany, from the author of Welhelm Meister and of Werther to Heine ; in Italy, from the author of Jacopo Ortis to Leopardi ; in France, from the author of the New Heloise to Musset ; in Great Britain, from Burns and Shelley down as far, perhaps, as Swinburne, it has been the absence of God, it has been the lack of a lofty and fixed ideal, which has permitted human feebleness, whether morally or physically diseased, to take the Digitized by LjOOQIC i 9 upper hand, and to give to modern art a somewhat feverish tone.

In the place of a fine soul inspired by the divine, one has seen the animtda blandula, variable, sensitive, attach itself to many fleeting and unrealisable phantoms. Lamentable scepticism has taken the place of simple, candid faith, and consequently the same poet can invoke God or Satan with equal indifference, confounding the shadow with the light, as if the very name were slipping from his memory: And it is also with an invocation to Satan that our powerful poet Carducci, who is called the Italian Swinburne, entered on his poetic career.

Thus readily, when the notions of good and evil are confounded, do God and devil change places, and poets, having too seldom ready inspiration, mount to glory on the wings of all the fallen angels. But as for Burns, in spite of the sentiments and passions which belong to his period, he has a certain delicacy and refine- ment which seem to be his very own, and there are in some of his lyrics, in some bits of dialect, in a certain feeling of the Scottish soil, qualities which excite the lively admiration of a stranger ; and it seems to me, for example, that one would need to have a truly Scottish soul to fully lay hold of the beauties of the " Lament of Mary, Queen of Scots, on the approach of spring.

From the Italian Poet, Carducci. Robert Burns appears to me to have laid open in the poetry of his country both doors and windows to the breath of revolution. In rough outline, in idyllic emotion, in sarcasm and in tenderness, in blasphemy and in prayer, in negation and in aspiration, and in lyric contrasts he seems to conjure up the ethics and aesthetics of a new philosophy.

For us on the Continent, mostly of Latin origin, he is like distant summer lightning, indicating a tempest of which we can only conjecture the force and the refreshing rain. Senato del Regno, Bologna, 9th July, I admire Robert Burns, though I sometimes find it difficult to understand him.

To a foreigner his language is somewhat obscure, but his soul is clear and limpid as I love to picture to my mind those mountain lakes which the author of " Waverley " has taught me to love. His soul seems to me to be not the soul of one indi- vidual but that of an entire people, composed as it ie of so many- various chords — his fatherland, the bottle, freedom, pleasure, melancholy, and the rest.

He is reverend and loving towards God, familiar and social with " Old Nick," his passing loves and sentimental humours are innumerable. Little wonder is it that Burns is worshipped from the Orkneys to the Tweed.

He has extraordinary richness of language, wealth of imagery, graceful- ness, vivacity, delicacy of feeling, and a sincerity which sometimes, as in the "Tragic fragment," becomes affecting. But withal, I must sincerely confess that I cannot place him alongside those great poets, masters of human nature.

He does not create new types, his muse diverts but does not inflame. His agreeableness is sometimes spoiled by certain mythological ornamentations, the tribute paid by him to his era. Although, then, he is rather a great national poet than a universal one, all other nations should envy Scotland the posses- sion of him ; and every artist who in poetry honours the gifts of nature more than the discipline of art will reverence the volume, Where the Scottish muse immortal lives To sacred strains and tuneful numbers joined.

I am grateful for the honour you have done me in asking my opinion of your illustrious compatriot, Robert Burns, and I thank you still more for having used, in so doing, my native language, thereby shewing me that it is known and prized even in your distant and picturesque country. Unhappily I am not in a position to return so exquisite a com- pliment.

I know English, I read, appreciate, and admire your writers, but I should not dare either to write or speak your com- posite and difficult language lest I should do so incorrectly. I only know a small portion of the works of your great poet — many of them, hard to translate, have in the sorry French transla- Digitized by LiOOQ IC 21 tions to be found in Italy lost that delicate perfume which doubt- lees the local colour conveyed in words and phrases peculiar to the Scottish dialect, and almost incomprehensible by a foreigner.

By a singular coincidence, with'" the interval of a century, I was born on the same day of the same month and year as your Burns — thus the date of his birth, similar to my own, remained easily impressed on my memory ever since, a few years back, I learned it from his biography.

I believe, honoured sir, that my name must be Imown to you solely by my work, " Psychology of the Beautiful and of Art," which I published in Paris during the past year.

In that book I have indicated clearly the criterion by which I judge a work of art. To me the fundamental basis of its aesthetic worth lies in its form and meaning, and this in the songs of Burns is perfect.

His verses sound easy and sweet like a piece of music, the rhythm and refrains, the majors and minors move and follow and alternate with a graceful and alluring playfulness that combines the smoothness of a reed with the stately march of lofty poetry. Robert Burns has mingled in his verses all the treasures an imagination enriched with rural memories inherited from past generations, and lodged in the minds of his forefathers and in his own well-balanced and capacious brain ; and looking in his portrait at those beautiful eyes alight with light and life, I can see that through his acute and ' healthy perceptions have passed visions which have thrilled him of the many-shaped hills and azure lakes under the change- ful sky of Scotland, with its forests and green meadows, its birds, its flowers and perfumes, and its woodland sounds— all these have illumined his soul, and through his pen have taken form and ex- pression in rhyme and epigram, sincere, spontaneous, luminous, and sparkling ; not spoiled and deformed as only too often happens in an old Latin system by deceitful pandering to rhetoric and erudite mummifications of classicism.

But he has added to these a gentle breeze of spirituality: This is in my opinion the true, the characteristic nature of your poet, from the little I know of him. Beyond this he does not go: Wide conceptions of thought were not made for him ; mystical visions of transcendal idealism did not trouble his simple and positive soul. Talis homo, talis ars — to see things clearly and Digitized by LiOOQ IC intensely, to feel them intensely, and straightway to express them in words, living, real, and true to nature: His poetry was and could only be that of feeling and sentiment.

In this limited horizon he was truly great, and, equalled by few, he has probably been surpassed by none. To me, who am a visionary, a lover, of eternal poetry, of light and verdure, his poetry is pro- foundly touching. I thank you again, sir, for having afforded me this opportunity of honouring your great poet. I answer your courteous invitation. Robert Burns seems to me to be worthy to be admired among the most admired, for he became and remained a great poet in a condition of life in which others would have become less than man.

Turin, 23rd June, The decoration of the streets, public buildings, business premises, aod private dwelling-houses was gone about in a more systematic manner than has ever before been seen in Dumfries. This was due to the initiative of Mr Bowron of Marchmount, who was the means of convening a meeting of merchants along the first and principal line of the march of the procession, and the exertions of a committee which was appointed at that meeting, and of which Treasurer Cumming was the convener.

Clark, with whom were associated the Messrs Piggot Brothers, London. The committee subsequently added to their sphere of operations Academy Street, Lovers' "Walk, Rae Streot, and Catherine Street, together with the entrance to the town from the station.

The former firm was also entrusted by the Town Council with a contract for the decoration of the Town Hall, the Burns Statue, and the Midsteeple, while Mr Clark was charged by the Water Commission with the adornment of the Foun- tain.

Supplementary efforts were also made for the decoration of Friars' Vennel and Queensberry Square. Coming to deal with the decorations more minutely, at the New Bridge end of Buccleuch Street was erected a very artistic banner-arch, consisting of two thirty feet Venetian masts, each surmounted by a royal crown, with the motto, " We'll a' be prood o' Robin," in silver lettering on a blue ground, and facing both sides.

Din- widdie, manufacturer, displayed on the front of his residence at the end of the New Bridge a very effective and appropriate piece of ornamenta- tion consisting of a gilt plough, with a lyre above, and below the couplet from Burns' s address to the Dumfries Volunteers: Aljng Buccleuch Street were erected Venetian masts at twenty yards apart, arranged in alternate heights of twenty-eight feet and twenty- two feet, and the twenty-eight feet masts were connected across the streets with lines of one and a half and one yard flags.

The masts were decorated with festoons of streamers. At the entrance to St George's Halls there was an effective display of -flags, and across the street on twenty-eight feet masts was the motto, " For Auld Lang Syne. The Town Hall was elabo- rately and artistically treated.

It was ornamented with crimson cloth, draped with amber fringe the full length of the cornice of the build- ing. Two national flags floated on the top of the building and a flag at each corner. Eight trophies of flags were arranged on the building with heraldic shields, the royal arms being displayed over the doorway, and there were also Venetian banners and the motto over the portico, u Hail Scotia's Bard. Treasurer Cumming displayed trophies of flags from his business premises. Castle Street was treated similarly to Buccleuch Street as regards general decoration ; a motto displayed here being from the song " Green grow the rashes," viz.

There were four poles covered with green cloth erected at equal distances round the statue. On these were erected a dome of evergreens, and from the centre a basket of flowers was hung above the head of the figure. On each banner there were also trophies of flags and Venetian banners. Church Place were Venetian masts at ten yards apart, fixed in the roadway, decorated with garlands of evergreens and streamers.

Church Crescent as far as the Academy gate had masts at twenty, yards apart with side festoons of bright streamers. Pringle adorned his premises with trophies of flags, and Mr Oughton treated the Royal Restaurant in a irianner which gave it a gay and brilliant appearance. Mr Andrew Boyd, with a tasteful arrangement of artificial flowers and banners exhibited, made up an effective display.

Mr M'Lean exhibited a buirdly Scotch thistle. Grossing the street opposite Mr Buchan's establishment was hung a line from the poet Campbell's tribute to Burns, High Chief of Scottish Song, in silver letters on red ground. On Saturday Mr Thomson put up opposite the s: Hole i' the Wa " a staling business sign, into which was impressed a line of the poet's, and later there was added a picture of the old chapel erected by Lady Christian Bruce in memory of her husband, Sir Christopher Seaton, on the site where St.

Mary's Church now stands, with a fanciful picture of the old town wall in the same neighbourhood ; but in deference to public feeling he gave an under- taking that the aggressively commercial display, with its invitation " Tak aff yer dram," would be taken down, and this was done on Tuesday morning. Along the High Street to the Midsteeple were placed Venetian masts at twenty yards apart, each being decorated complete, and having lines of one and a half and one yard flags across the street, and streamers along the route.

From the Monument in Queensberry Square were four lines of national flags and streamers ex- tending to the four comers of the Square. At the Standard Office was one of the mo3t appropriate designs. Above the first storey was a wooden plough, of the kind in use at the time of the poet, over it the motto, " God speed the plough," and beneath the legend, " The poetic genius of his oountry found him at the plough. Streamers and flags were hung from the centre pole to the front corner of the Steeple, and two flags to the parapet of the shops.

There were in addition five trophies of flags with heraldic shield and four Venetian banners. In the narrow portion of High Street at the side of the Midsteeple there were placed lines of three, four, and five yards flags fixed every ten yards from the buildings.

And faith he'll prent it. Above the shop of Mr J. Thdmson a large Scotch thistle was placed, with the motto lines: The Co-operative Society had an effective display of trophies of flags. The Fountain received elaborate treatment. Five poles festooned with green and hanging from the top to the adjacent buildings on both sides were lines of evergreens and flags.

Over the entrance to the Commercial Hotel was the motto, " Refresh- ments for peer and peasant, with a Highland welcome," and the King's Arms Hotel on the opposite side was decorated with royal blue and trophies of flags. Spanning the High Street at the junction with Assembly Street was the motto: Mr Peter Stobie's windows were tastefully festooned in cloth of various colours, the decoration being exceedingly chaste and artistic.

At the entrance to the Globe Hotel were shields and trophies of flags and festoons of evergreens. A portrait of the poet was exhibited, with the dates beneath on each side, and , and over it was a real Scotch thistle immediately in front of the centre window of the build- ing.

A border of ivy encircled round the portrait, and below was the motto, in Lord Rosebery's colours — on a primrose ground with lettering andjborder of rose colour — Man to man, the warld o'er, Shall brithers be, for a' thab. From the window on either side were hung the two handsome banners of the Burgh Liberal Association and the County Liberal Association.

The premises of the Dumfries and Maxwelltown Co-operative Society were tastefully adorned with flags and other ornaments, as was also the New George Hotel. A little further down was the motto, " Hey the merry ploughmen! Down the narrow portion of High Street and Nith Place to the Mechanics' Insti- tute were placed lines of two and a half, three, and four yards flags, arranged twenty-five yards apart, and fastened from the buildings.

The Mechanics' Institute was embellished with trophies. Venetian banners and two large flags were displayed from the building. Michael Street had Venetian masts at thirty yards apart, all connected across the street with bright streamers ; and in this neighbourhood were the mottoes — " Contented wi' little an' canty wi' mair," and " The man's the gowd for a' that. The house in which Burns died, in the little street off St.

Michael Street which now bears his name, was very tastefully decorated under the direction of Mr M'Lellan Arnott, artist, the work being carried out by the boys of the Industrial School. On each side of the doorway was a large Scotch thistle. Each window of the house was surrounded with roses, ivy leaves, and evergreens, and over the doorway extending the full length of the building was the line from " The Vision," in red letters, " All Hail, my own inspired Bard.

Over the marble tablet en the right hand side of the door were two wreaths composed of " the wee, modest, Digitized by LiOOQ IC 28 crimson tipped flower. A very graceful and appropriate piece of decoration was designed by Mr T.

M'Kettrick of Viewfield and carried out to his order, at the house immediately adjoining the churchyard gate. Here was a wreath of evergreens, from which hung pendants of laurel, and on it were the lines embodying the Muse of Coila's salutation to the poet — " And wear thou this " — she solemn said, And bound the holly round my head.

The decorations along Glebe Terrace to English Street were not particularly elaborate. A private dwelliDg displayed the words, "We'll, a' be proud o' Robin," in the midst of evergreen decorations. All along Cresswell Terrace, Queen's Place, and Queen Street strings of flags were hung across the roadway at short distances. At the top of Queen's Place there were suspended from an arch of flags the words " We hail an honest man.

English Street presented a very gay appearance with its strings of fluttering flags and streamers of all patterns and many nations. An arch at Jubilee Buildings upheld the words. Flag arches were also erected at the two entrances to the station, on each of which were inscribed the prophetic words of Burns to his wife when on his death-bed — "I'll be more thought of, Jean, a hundred years after I am gone " — and which have to-day found more than justi- fication.

Following the route of the procession to Rae Street, Venetian poles were placed along the street, and numerous arches spanned the roadway. At the square where Catherine Street and Rae Street inter- sect, long strings of large flags were suspended between a pole erected on the central lamp and the four corners of the square at the end of Catherine Street. Moat House was tastefully decorated with crimson cJoth hanging from the parapet wall, and a trophy shield bore the inscription, " Adown winding Nith he did wander.

At Elm Bank, the residence of Mr Minto, there was erected an arch of ever- greens, and several wreaths were displayed, together with the motto, " We'll a' be prood o' Robin. Among other mottoes displayed at different points of the streets were " For puir auld Scotland's sake," "Contented wi' little, and canty wi' mair," " Thou Bonnie Gem," inscribed below a picture of a daisy ; " My Bonnie Jean ;" and " A happy fireside clime To weans and wife.

Strings of flags spanned Loreburn Street, and several other streets of the town not in the route of the procession were also more or less decorated. In front of the slaughter-house in Loreburn Street an ox's head was placed between two fine pairs of horns, the gateway being further adorned with evergreens.

The decorations here were carried out by Mr S. Roddan, flesher, High Street, with assistance. The national banner of Scotland fluttered from the house in Bank Street where Burns lived after leaving Ellisland. Maxwelltown being left out of the route of the procession there was no serious attempt at decoration made on the " Brig En' " side of the water. From several of the houses, however, flags and banners were suspended, and the new flag of the Town Council floated over the Town Hall.

From Rosefield Mills were displayed three handsome flags — the centre one a shepherd check, and the other Scotch greys, all being the manufacture of the firm. Tuesday morning dawned somewhat grey, but soon the sun shone through the cloudy screen, dispelling the last lingering fears that the weather might in the matter of the great demonstration in honour of Robert Burns prove the factor that would illustrate afresh the truth of his poetical aphorism — The best laid schemes o' mice and men Gang aft agley.

Sunshine was the one element awanting to ensure the success of the centenary proceedings, and happily the face of nature shone sympathetically on the devotees of one who was so truly the poet of nature, animate and inanimate, sufficiently long to enable the out-door pageant to be got over without discomfort ; but in the Digitized by LiOOQ IC 3i afternoon " nature's teardrops " fell in occasional copious showers.

For days before Dumfries had been the centre of attraction for many visitors, and by Monday our streets were paraded by a con- tinual throng, in which mingled many from other Scottish towns and from over the border, and no inconsiderable sprinkling from the land of the Stars and Stripes, attracted to the shrine of one whose spell is cast over the whole Anglo-Saxon race.

From an early hour in the morning special trains and country brakes and 'buses poured into the town a stream of holiday-makers intent on witnessing the great procession or taking part in it, or on being present at some of the important functions of the day. Locomotion became a work of difficulty before the morning was well advanced, and ere the procession was got under weigh masses of patient and cheerful humanity were closely wedged together along the footways of the principal streets lying in the route.

Our visitors included a corps of reporters some seventy strong, bent on transmitting to newspapers throughout the kingdom and some beyond the sea a record of the memorable proceedings. Another important body on such an occasion are the constabulary, who are charged with the duty of seeing that order is maintained, and as far as possible danger of accidents averted. Chief Constable Malcolm had under his command a force of strong, 60 being drafted from the city of Glasgow, 20 from Edinburgh, 40 from the county of Dumfries, and 10 belonging to the burgh.

From six o'clock the town bells rang out merry peals. Dumfries itself was given up to holiday. The factories had been closed since Saturday, and the week's holiday of the building trades was in operation. The shopkeepers, however, kept open premises except during the procession hours.

The procession was the most gigantic of its kind ever witnessed in Dumfries, and the marshalling of it was a task entailing a very large amount of labour and ingenuity. The secretarial work of this depart- ment was assigned to Mr James Geddes, who bestowed much attention upon it, and he received valuable assistance from the marshals, the four chief of whom were mounted. Unhappily Captain Rea, of the Dumfries- shire Volunteers, was prevented by illness from fulfilling his appoint- ment as chief marshal.

His place was taken by Major Carlyle, of Waterbeck. Charteries, Dean Hiddleston, Mr T. Captain Geddes attended chiefly in the capacity of secretary to the Procession Commit- tee. The remainder of the procession, comprising the trades, Ac, the dairymen, and from the New Galloway contingent to the end of the procession, were marshalled by Mr F. The marshalling corps was further strengthened by non-commissioned officers of the 3rd V.

It was on the Whitesands that tbe main body of the processionists mustered ; and they occupied the whole of the long line from the New Bridge to the foot of Assembly Street. In addition, George Street, Charlotte Street, and part of Castle Street were taken up by the masonic and municipal bodies and by the members of Burns clubs.

The members of the Town Council of Dumfries, who headed the procession, assembled at the Town Hall, in Buccleuch Street, and departed from this point, preceded by the band of the King's Own Scottish Borderers Militia and four mounted police officers.

Provost Glover, wearing his handsome new robe of crimson silk velvet trimmed with ermine, his cocked hat, and the gold chain of office, occupied the first carriage, in which also was placed the wreath to be presented by the Council ; and on the box was seated the burgh officer in his pic turesque costume. Six carriages followed containing the other magis- trates, members of Council, and burgh officials.

This was the first public occasion on which the Dean of Guild wore the chain of the old Incorporated Trades, which was lately assigned by the Council to the holder of his office. The Magistrates and Town Council of Max- welltown followed also in open carriages. The procession of Burns clubs was headed by a waggonette, on the elevated sides of which were hung some twenty wreaths sent by foreign Digitized by LiOOQ IC 33 and colonial societies, not otherwise represented in the procession ; many being of exquisite flowers and design.

The tribute of the Penn- sylvania " Tarn o' Shanter " club was composed of laurel and ivy leaves taken from the grave of the American poet, Walt Whitman. Other wreaths were exhibited from the Caledonian Club, Newark ; the St. The members of Dumfries Burns Club immediately followed the waggonette, making no special display beyond the wreath which they carried.

Next came Burns Howff Club, which very rightly occupied one of the leading positions among the Burns Clubs. Closely identified with the place where the Bard spent many happy evenings delighting his listeners with his brilliant wit, it was fitting that its members should turn out in large numbers and make a big and brilliant display on an occasion like the present. Early in the day they were on the qui vive. Mr William Lawson, from the Ninety Club, Edinburgh a nephew of the president of the club , assisted with the unfurling of the banner, and made a few appropriate remarks.

It was mentioned in course of the proceedings that the club includes among its members a gentleman who holds the same position as the national bard did a hundred years ago, and also, in the person of Mr Halliday, plumber, one who in sealed up the casket containing the skull of the poet. The party were enter, tained to cake and wine by Mr and Mrs Lawson. The club took part in the Maxwelltown procession, and returned to the Sands at the appointed time.

They carried a handsome wreath, in the form of a miniature plough, which had been presented to them by the trustees of the late Bailie Scott, an ex-president of the club, in fulfilment of his wish. Leading the contingent was a car carrying a representation of " Auld Lang Syne. Another banner bore the words " It's comin' yet for a' that," and on the reverse side, " The hert's aye the pairt aye. Other decorations consisted of four sheaves of corn and heather from the Galloway hills.

A lorry followed with a representation of " The poor and honest sodger," and the imaginary spot of the meeting of the two lovers. There was a good imitation of a corn field and Btile, and the lovers were represented by Miss Maud Crosbie and Sergeant Somerville of the 3rd K.

Overhead were the lines: Another effective representation was that of " Scot's wha hae. Mr Marshall lent the car which headed the procession ; Mr P. Colour-Sergeant Smith was marshal. Dumfries Mechanics' Burns Club turned out to the number of about forty. They were headed by a lorry containing a representation of " Highland Mary," and the attempt to represent the braes around the Castle o' Montgomery was very successful.

At each corner of the lorry was a Scotch thistle, and at the rear were two bannerettes — one shewing two hands firmly clasped and the other bearing a heart. The painting was done by Mr George Graham, a member of the club, and the floral decorations were also executed by members.

A wreath, made by Mr John Kemp, a member of the club, was carried by two members. In the centre was a miniature representation of the poet with the dates on each side, and , while below there were the couplet: A representation of " Tarn o' Shanter " was very successful, and Robert Burns was found at the plough.

He not only represented the bard, but actually bore the name of the poet, thus giving a peculiar reality to the representation.

The collie was close to his heels, and the tableaux vlvants was rendered increasingly attractive by the presence of " Coila," with extended arm, in the person of Miss Little.

The representation was greeted with hearty cheers at various parts of the route. On the second lorry the kitchen of " Poosie Nancy " was represented with a gathering of worthies. The original tower at Ellisland was also represented with considerable faithfulness, and a plough which was made from an Ayrshire model, and was constructed by Mr D.

Kerr, the president of the club, was shewn. The ground work was made of wire, and it was deftly covered with flowers. The members of the club wore pretty rosettes. They had painted for the occasion by Mr George Graham a large banner, on which " the cronies " Jof the famous poem, " Tarn o' Shanter " and " Souter Johnnie," are represented in the conventional attitude, and underneath is the line, " Tarn lo'ed him like a very brither.

On a lorry were Burns, repre- sented in the well-known stylish " Edinburgh dress," and " Annie," the heroine of " The Rigs of Barley," in appropriate peasant garb, print dress, shawl, and sun bonnet, surrounded by sheaves of grain, and neighboured by the motto, " I'll ne'er forget that happy, happy nicht. They were headed with the banner which has just been painted for the club, and which here played a part in a public function for the first time.

Kennedy, the Scottish vocalist, accompanied the club, wearing his silver replica of the Craigdarroch whistle. All the members wore rosettes on which a photo of Burns was displayed.

A second lorry carried large floral models of a watering pan and two bee hives — sent by Mr Chalmers, Terregles. Many deputations had made special voyages from Canada and America in order to bear fraternal greetings to Scotsmen in " the old country " on an occasion of historic interest. The delegations included Mr Walter Scott, sen. He is a gentleman of 76, but hale in heart and limb, and did honour to the body accrediting him as he rode through the streets in a postilion chase.

M'Kay, and Mr Gordon Drummond. The Caledonian Club of Washing- ton, D. Nicholson, Academy Street, Dumfries. He spent six years in the district and recently returned, and was commissioned by the club to be present on behalf of the society and present their wreath. This wreath was of pretty design, and was in the shape of a harp. In the conveyance of the Washington Club, D. The horse of Major Carlyle, who was riding up the street, slipped, and fell in front of the two horses of the carriage ; but the Major retained his hold of the reins, and quickly remounted nothing the worse.

Mr Robert Swan arrived rather late in the afternoon to represent the Caledonian Society of Toronto, and brought a wreath composed of wax representing maple leaves in the fall, with a silver inscription plate. Andrews Society of Toronto sent an illuminated address. The clubs represented by deputation or wreaths were as follows: Irish— Belfast, Belfast S.

The Scotsmen of Johannesburg sent a wreath. The various Masonic bodies followed the Burns clubs. There was a natural appropriateness in this arrangement, as Burns took a keen interest in the craft, often sharing in the convivialities of the various lodges with which he was at different times brought into association, and repeatedly holding office in his own mother lodge.

This circum- stance is referred to in one of the masonic odes, of which he wrote several, in the verse: The Masons assembled at the Masonic Hall in George Street, and about eleven o'clock started in procession, headed by the pipe-band of the Dumfriesshire Volunteers, under Pipe-Major Ancell. Two of the lodges, St.

The whole of the brethren, numbering about three hundred, walked in full regalia. The Provincial Grand Lodge of Dum- friesshire was well represented, about thirty members turning out. The following were the lodges represented, in the order in which they marched, with their leaders and numbers: Graham ; Caledonian, Annan, No. Walker, chaplain ; Hartfell, Moffat, No. Dr Cameron ; Kirkcudbright, No. Walker ; Renfrewshire East, No. Moffat was represented in the procession by the Burgh Commis- sioners and several of the leading traders, driven in Mr Fingland's Jii Tibbie Shiel" four- in hand coach.

They immediately followed the Freemasons. The members of Lochmaben Town Council, also driving, and Provost Halliday wearing his official robe, had a place in the same part of the procession. It was on the Whitesands that the great body of the tradesmen and members of friendly societies assembled, together with contingents from other towns. They were headed by the Dumfries Volunteer brass band, and the premier place was assigned to the Dumfries Fire Brigade. The members, under Firemaster Beattie, ensconed on their fire-engine, which was drawn by two horses, made a very imposing show.

They wore their ponderous-looking helmets and their fire costumes, and on the engine were displayed a number of brass conductors and stand pipes, furbished to their utmost brilliancy. They were immediately followed by the Moffat Fire Brigade, in their shining brass helmets, mounted on their engine, with a team of four handsome greys, driven by Cavers, the veteran whip of the St.

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 40 The tailor trade, which is one of our most venerable incorporations y acquires special distinction from the fact that they possess a prescriptive right to carry " the Siller Gun," which the British Solomon presented to the burgh, in virtue of the fact that it was won by a freeman of the craft and its official head on the last occasion when it was competed for. This was in , the successful marksman being Deacon Alexander Johnston. Accordingly, with consent of the Town Council, they bore the trophy in the Burns birth centenary procession of , and in the pageant at the unveiling of the statue in And here again the coveted trinket in its gilt case figures at the head of their body, carried by Mr Robert M'Dowall on a gay pole, surmounted by a crown ; and two members of the trade marching with drawn swords figure as its guardians.

Three flags gave an added bravery to the procession — one that belonged to the Incorporated Trade, dating back to , the others embellished with trade emblems — and there were four stewards carrying rods of office.

About 60 painters and glaziers of the town came next in order. They were headed by a large banner bearing the inscription, "Dumfries and Maxwelltown operative painters, decorators, glaziers, and paper hangers. Another banner and a flag each bore the painters' coats of arms. They also carried two banners with quotations from the poet's works. There was also a shield on which the tools of the trade were displayed. The men walked in their white jackets and aprons, with blue caps, and wearing rosettes.

The employees of the Dumfries Ironworks, who followed the painters, formed one of the most interesting sections of the procession. The detachment was headed with an emblematic banner.

A lorry followed, on which a number of smiths were engaged rivetting. The lorry also contained a number of working model portable steam engines of various designs, made by several of the foundrymen. An old Char- tist flag, with the inscription " Scotland shall be free," was also borne aloft.