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In the Western and Eastern Roman empires launched an enormous expedition against the Vandals under the command of Basiliscus , which reportedly was composed of , soldiers and 1, ships. The Vandals defeated the invaders at the Battle of Cap Bon , capturing the Western fleet, and destroying the Eastern through the use of fire ships. In the s, the Romans abandoned their policy of war against the Vandals. The Western general Ricimer reached a treaty with them,  and in Genseric was able to conclude a "perpetual peace" with Constantinople.
Relations between the two states assumed a veneer of normality. The high-denomination imperial money was retained, demonstrating in the words of Merrills "reluctance to usurp the imperial prerogative".
Although the Vandals had fended off attacks from the Romans and established hegemony over the islands of the western Mediterranean, they were less successful in their conflict with the Berbers. Situated south of the Vandal kingdom, the Berbers inflicted two major defeats on the Vandals in the period — Differences between the Arian Vandals and their Trinitarian subjects including both Catholics and Donatists were a constant source of tension in their African state. Catholic bishops were exiled or killed by Genseric and laymen were excluded from office and frequently suffered confiscation of their property.
The same was also the case during the years — when Bishop Victor of Cartenna sent him, during a period of peace, a sharp refutation of Arianism and suffered no punishment. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia: According to the law of succession which he had promulgated, the oldest male member of the royal house was to succeed.
Thus he was succeeded by his son Huneric — , who at first tolerated Catholics, owing to his fear of Constantinople, but after began to persecute Manichaeans and Catholics. Gunthamund — , his cousin and successor, sought internal peace with the Catholics and ceased persecution once more. Externally, the Vandal power had been declining since Genseric's death, and Gunthamund lost early in his reign all but a small wedge of western Sicily to the Ostrogoths and had to withstand increasing pressure from the autochthonous Moors.
Hilderic — was the Vandal king most tolerant towards the Catholic Church. He granted it religious freedom; consequently Catholic synods were once more held in North Africa. However, he had little interest in war, and left it to a family member, Hoamer. When Hoamer suffered a defeat against the Moors , the Arian faction within the royal family led a revolt, raising the banner of national Arianism, and his cousin Gelimer — became king.
Hilderic, Hoamer and their relatives were thrown into prison. Byzantine Emperor Justinian I declared war, with the stated intention of restoring Hilderic to the Vandal throne.
The deposed Hilderic was murdered in on Gelimer's orders. Gelimer quickly assembled an army,  and met Belisarius at the Battle of Ad Decimum ; the Vandals were winning the battle until Gelimer's brother Ammatas and nephew Gibamund fell in battle.
Gelimer then lost heart and fled. Belisarius quickly took Carthage while the surviving Vandals fought on. Again, the Vandals fought well but broke, this time when Gelimer's brother Tzazo fell in battle.
Belisarius quickly advanced to Hippo , second city of the Vandal Kingdom, and in Gelimer surrendered to the Byzantine conqueror, ending the Kingdom of the Vandals. North Africa, comprising north Tunisia and eastern Algeria in the Vandal period, became a Roman province again, from which the Vandals were expelled. Many others were put into imperial service or fled to the two Gothic kingdoms Ostrogothic Kingdom and Visigothic Kingdom.
Some Vandal women married Byzantine soldiers and settled in north Algeria and Tunisia. The choicest Vandal warriors were formed into five cavalry regiments, known as Vandali Iustiniani , stationed on the Persian frontier. Some entered the private service of Belisarius. He was also offered the rank of a patrician but had to refuse it because he was not willing to change his Arian faith ".
As a distinct ethnic unit they disappeared". He was able to capture Carthage, but was assassinated by the Byzantines shortly afterwards. The 6th-century Byzantine historian Procopius wrote that the Vandals were tall and blond haired:. For they all have white bodies and fair hair, and are tall and handsome to look upon Known kings of the Vandals: Very little is known about the Vandalic language itself, which was of the East Germanic linguistic branch. The Goths have left behind the only text corpus of the East Germanic language type: Studies of literacy in North Africa have tended to centre around the administration, which was limited to the social elite.
However, the majority of the population of North Africa did not live in urban centres. Judith George explains that "Analysis of the [Vandal] poems in their context holds up a mirror to the ways and values of the times". Their work drew on earlier Roman traditions. Modern scholars generally hold the view that the Vandals allowed the Romans in North Africa to carry on with their way of life with only occasional interference. The title "King of the Wends" is translated as vandalorum rex in Latin.
The title was shortened to "King of Denmark" in The modern term vandalism stems from the Vandals' reputation as the barbarian people who sacked and looted Rome in AD The Vandals were probably not any more destructive than other invaders of ancient times, but writers who idealized Rome often blamed them for its destruction. The term was quickly adopted across Europe.
This new use of the term was important in colouring the perception of the Vandals from later Late Antiquity, popularizing the pre-existing idea that they were a barbaric group with a taste for destruction. Vandals and other " barbarian " groups had long been blamed for the fall of the Roman Empire by writers and historians.
Robin Hemley wrote a short story, "The Liberation of Rome," in which a professor of ancient history mainly Roman is confronted by a student claiming to be an ethnic Vandal. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Vandal disambiguation.
Sack of Rome Ancient Germanic culture portal. Retrieved 8 March Barbarian migrations and invasions: The Germans and Huns". Archived from the original on Archived from the original on June 23, Retrieved May 21, Visigothic Spain to c.
Frank Clover stresses continuities in North African Roman mosaics and coinage and literature, whereas Averil Cameron, drawing upon archaeology, documents how swift were the social, religious and linguistic changes once the area was conquered by Byzantium and then by Islam. Much has brought forth a relatively convincing argument to show that the very name Vandal reflects the worship of the Divine Twins. Jahrhundert Archived at the Wayback Machine. Nichols and sold by S.
Retrieved 28 March Archived from the original PDF on September 26, Retrieved July 30, Retrieved January 16, History of the Wars. Retrieved 11 August Christianity in Roman Africa: Retrieved 12 April An Introduction to Danish Culture. Retrieved 3 October Historical and statistical handbook. Articles and topics related to Vandals. Godigisel Gunderic Genseric Huneric Gunthamund Thrasamund Hilderic Gelimer Uterums partier med isolerglas 2-glas , isolertak i tjocklek 20 mm.
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